Physical Education and Leisure-Time Physical Activity in Youth Are Both Important for Adulthood Activity, Physical Performance, and Health

in Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $119.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $159.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $227.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $302.00

Background: The importance of youth physical activity (PA) for adulthood PA, performance, and health was retrospectively evaluated. Methods: A total of 258,146 participants (49% women), aged 19–70, with a first-time health-profile assessment between 1982 and 2015, provided self-reported data on current perceived health, PA, lifestyle, and physical education class participation, and PA outside school hours before age 20. Data on anthropometrics, blood pressure, and estimated maximal oxygen consumption (VO2max) were obtained. Results: Women participating in physical education class, compared with those who did not, had significantly lower OR (range: 0.81–0.87) for perceiving poor overall health, general obesity, and high diastolic blood pressure after adjustment for potential confounders, and increased OR (range: 1.17–1.23) for exercising regularly and a normal/high VO2max in adulthood. For men, the ORs were significantly lower (range: 0.66–0.86) for poor perceived overall health, general, and abdominal obesity. These associations were seen for participants up to 70 years. Increased PA outside school hours revealed even stronger beneficial associations. In joint analyses, both youth and current PA were important for lower OR of poor health and being obese in adulthood. Conclusions: Physical education class participation and additional PA after school hours were both important for perceived health, PA, VO2max, and metabolic health in adulthood up to 70 years.

Ekblom-Bak, Ö. Ekblom, and B. Ekblom are with the Åstrand Laboratory of Work Physiology, The Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences, Stockholm, Sweden. Andersson and Wallin are with the Research Dept, HPI Health Profile Institute AB, Stockholm, Sweden.

Ekblom-Bak (eline@gih.se) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Ekblom-Bak E, Olsson G, Ekblom O, Ekblom B, Bergstrom G, Borjesson M. The daily movement pattern and fulfilment of physical activity recommendations in Swedish middle-aged adults: the SCAPIS pilot study. PLoS ONE. 2015;10(5):0126336. PubMed doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0126336

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Hagstromer M, Troiano RP, Sjostrom M, Berrigan D. Levels and patterns of objectively assessed physical activity—a comparison between Sweden and the United States. Am J Epidemiol. 2010;171(10):10551064. PubMed doi:10.1093/aje/kwq069

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Paffenbarger RS Jr, Wing AL, Hyde RT. Physical activity as an index of heart attack risk in college alumni. Am J Epidemiol. 1978;108(3):161175. PubMed doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a112608

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Byberg L, Melhus H, Gedeborg R, et al. Total mortality after changes in leisure time physical activity in 50 year old men: 35 year follow-up of population based cohort. Br Med J. 2009;338:b688. doi:10.1136/bmj.b688

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Karlsson MK, Nordqvist A, Karlsson C. Physical activity increases bone mass during growth. Food Nutr Res. 2008;52:1871. doi:10.3402/fnr.v52i0.1871

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Kosti RI, Panagiotakos DB. The epidemic of obesity in children and adolescents in the world. Cent Eur J Public Health. 2006;14(4):151159. PubMed

  • 7.

    Ekblom O, Oddsson K, Ekblom B. Health-related fitness in Swedish adolescents between 1987 and 2001. Acta Paediatr. 2004;93(5):681686. PubMed doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.2004.tb02997.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Tammelin T, Nayha S, Hills AP, Jarvelin MR. Adolescent participation in sports and adult physical activity. Am J Prev Med. 2003;24(1):2228. PubMed doi:10.1016/S0749-3797(02)00575-5

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Cleland V, Dwyer T, Venn A. Which domains of childhood physical activity predict physical activity in adulthood? A 20-year prospective tracking study. Br J Sports Med. 2012;46(8):595602. PubMed doi:10.1136/bjsports-2011-090508

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Cleland V, Dwyer T, Blizzard L, Venn A. The provision of compulsory school physical activity: associations with physical activity, fitness and overweight in childhood and twenty years later. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008;5:14. PubMed doi:10.1186/1479-5868-5-14

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Huotari PR, Mikkelsson L, Kujala UM, Aakso LL, Nupponen H. Physical activity and fitness in adolescence as predictors of self-estimated fitness in adulthood. J Sports Med Phys Fitness. 2013;53(2):177184. PubMed

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Telama R, Yang X, Leskinen E, et al. Tracking of physical activity from early childhood through youth into adulthood. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2014;46(5):955962. PubMed doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000181

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Jose KA, Blizzard L, Dwyer T, McKercher C, Venn AJ. Childhood and adolescent predictors of leisure time physical activity during the transition from adolescence to adulthood: a population based cohort study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011;8:54. PubMed doi:10.1186/1479-5868-8-54

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Rangul V, Bauman A, Holmen TL, Midthjell K. Is physical activity maintenance from adolescence to young adulthood associated with reduced CVD risk factors, improved mental health and satisfaction with life: the HUNT study, Norway. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012;9:144. PubMed doi:10.1186/1479-5868-9-144

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Andersson G. The Importance of Exercise for Sick Leave and Perceived Health. [PhD dissertation]. Sweden: Department of Preventive and Social Medicine, Linköping University; 1987.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Lilliecreutz Huitema E, Andersson G, Samuelsson K. Lifestyle changes with help from Health Profile Assessment in combination with support in individual interventions for persons with acquired brain injury—a pilot study. Eur J Physiother. 2014;16:151158.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Åstrand I. Aerobic work capacity in men and women with special reference to age. Acta Physiol Scand Suppl. 1960;49(169):192. PubMed

  • 18.

    Phüse U, Gerber M. International Comparison of Physical Education: Concepts, Problems, Prospects. Oxford, UK: Meyer & Meyer Sport; 2005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Kuh DJ, Cooper C. Physical activity at 36 years: patterns and childhood predictors in a longitudinal study. J Epidemiol Community Health. 1992;46(2):114119. PubMed doi:10.1136/jech.46.2.114

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Kraut A, Melamed S, Gofer D, Froom P, Study C. Effect of school age sports on leisure time physical activity in adults: the CORDIS study. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2003;35(12):20382042. PubMed doi:10.1249/01.MSS.0000099087.96549.96

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Hirvensalo M, Lintunen T, Rantanen T. The continuity of physical activity—a retrospective and prospective study among older people. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2000;10(1):3741. PubMed doi:10.1034/j.1600-0838.2000.010001037.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Telama R. Tracking of physical activity from childhood to adulthood: a review. Obes Facts. 2009;2(3):187195. PubMed doi:10.1159/000222244

  • 23.

    Ganna A, Ingelsson E. 5 year mortality predictors in 498, 103 UK Biobank participants: a prospective population-based study. Lancet. 2015;386(9993):533540. PubMed doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(15)60175-1

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    DeSalvo KB, Bloser N, Reynolds K, He J, Muntner P. Mortality prediction with a single general self-rated health question. A meta-analysis. J Gen Intern Med. 2006;21(3):267275. PubMed doi:10.1111/j.1525-1497.2005.00291.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Larsson L. Idrott och hälsa är ingenting för mig [Physical Education and Health is Nothing for Me]. [Master thesis]. Stockholm, Sweden: Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences; 2003.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Redelius K. Bäst eller pest? Ämnet idrott och hälsa bland elever i grundskolans senare år [Best or pest? The subject of physical education and sport among pupils in the later years of compulsory school]. In: Larsson H, Redelius K, eds. Mellan nytta och nöje. Bilder av ämnet idrott och hälsa [Between Use and Pleasure. Images of the Subject Physical Education]. Stockholm, Sweden: Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences; 2004:149172.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Sandahl B. Ett ämne för alla?: normer och praktik i grundskolans idrottsundervisning 1962-2002 [A Subject for Everyone?: norms and Practice of Compulsory Physical Education in Swedish Schools 1962–2002]. [PhD thesis]. Stockholm, Sweden: Swedish School of Sport and Health Sciences; 2005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Bråkenhielm G. Ingen gympa för mig!— en undersökning av skälen till att elever inte deltar i ämnet idrott och hälsa [No Physical Education for Me!—A Study on the Reasons to Not Participate in Physical Education]. Stockholm, Sweden: Svensk Idrottsforskning; 2008:2.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Ekblom-Bak E, Ekblom B, Vikstrom M, de Faire U, Hellenius ML. The importance of non-exercise physical activity for cardiovascular health and longevity. Br J Sports Med. 2014;48(3):233238. PubMed doi:10.1136/bjsports-2012-092038

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 118 0 0
Full Text Views 5436 2406 173
PDF Downloads 850 507 88