Accuracy of Children’s Perceived Skill Competence and its Association With Physical Activity

in Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $115.00

1 year subscription

USD  $153.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $218.00

2 year subscription

USD  $285.00

Background: Perceived movement competence is important in the relationship between actual competence and physical activity (PA). This study examines the accuracy of children’s perceptions and investigates the relationship between perceived competence (PC) and PA. Methods: Data collected were part of Project Spraoi, a PA and nutrition-based intervention. Participants (N = 419) were senior infant/first class (n = 202, mean age: 6.5 [0.6] y) and fourth/fifth class (n = 217, mean age: 10.4 [0.6] y) children from 3 schools in Cork, Ireland. The Test of Gross Motor Development-2 and Pictorial Scale of Perceived Movement Skill Competence for Young Children assessed actual and PC in 6 locomotor and 6 object-control fundamental movement skills. Moderate to vigorous PA levels were measured by accelerometry. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests assessed the accuracy of PC. Hierarchical regression analysis investigated relationships between PC and both actual competence and moderate to vigorous PA. Results: Children had greater perceived overall and object-control competence than actual. Among younger children, there was no difference between perceived locomotor and actual, while older children had lower perceived locomotor competence than actual. PC did not predict actual competence. Perceived object-control and total PC were significant predictors of moderate to vigorous PA. Conclusions: Children have inflated perceptions of their overall and object-control movement skill competency. Perceived object-control and total FMS is associated with PA and thus, interventions aimed at increasing PA among children should target PC.

L.E. Bolger, L.A. Bolger, O’Neill, Coughlan, and Burns are with the Department of Sport, Leisure, and Childhood Studies, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork, Ireland. O’Brien is with the School of Education, University College Cork, Cork, Ireland. Lacey is with the Department of Mathematics, Cork Institute of Technology, Cork, Ireland.

L.E. Bolger (lisa.bolger@mycit.ie) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Gallahue DJ, Ozmun JC. Understanding Motor Development: Infants, Children, Adolescents, Adults. 7th ed. New York, NY: McGraw-Hill; 2002.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Lubans DR, Morgan PJ, Cliff DP, Barnett LM, Okely AD. Fundamental movement skills in children and adolescents: review of associated health benefits. Sport Med. 2010;40(12):10191035. doi:10.2165/11536850-000000000-00000

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Holfelder B, Schott N. Relationship of fundamental movement skills and physical activity in children and adolescents: a systematic review. Psychol Sport Med. 2014;15(4):382391.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Cattuzzo MT, dos Santos Henrique R, AHN, et al. Motor competence and health related physical fitness in youth: a systematic review. J Sci Med Sport. 2016;19(2):123129. PubMed ID: 25554655 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2014.12.004

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Haapala EA. Cardiorespiratory fitness and motor skills in relation to cognition and academic performance in children: a review. J Hum Kinet. 2013;36(1):5568. doi:10.2478/hukin-2013-0006

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Barnett LM, Van Beurden E, Morgan PJ, Brooks LO, Beard JR. Does childhood motor skill proficiency predict adolescent fitness? Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(12):21372144. PubMed ID: 18981934 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31818160d3

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Stodden DF, Goodway JD, Langendorfer SJ, et al. A developmental perspective on the role of motor skill competence in physical activity: an emergent relationship. Quest. 2008;60(2):290306. doi:10.1080/00336297.2008.10483582

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Rudisill ME, Mahar MT, Meaney KS. The relationship between children’s perceived and actual motor competence. Percept Mot Skills. 1993;76(3):895906. doi:10.2466/pms.1993.76.3.895

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Weiss MR, Amorose AJ. Children’s self-perceptions in the physical domain: between-and within-age variability in level, accuracy, and sources of perceived competence. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2005;27(2):226244. doi:10.1123/jsep.27.2.226

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Bagøien TE, Halvari H. Autonomous motivation: involvement in physical activity, and perceived sport competence: structural and mediator models. Percept Mot Skills. 2005;100(1):321. doi:10.2466/pms.100.1.3-21

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Harter S. Effectance motivation reconsidered. Toward a developmental model. Hum Dev. 1978;21(1):3464. doi:10.1159/000271574

  • 12.

    Harter S. The perceived competence scale for children. Child Dev. 1982;53(1):8797. doi:10.2307/1129640

  • 13.

    Sallis JF, Prochaska JJ, Taylor WC. A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32(5):963975. PubMed ID: 10795788 doi:10.1097/00005768-200005000-00014

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Barnett LM, Morgan PJ, van Beurden E, Beard JR. Perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and adolescent physical activity and fitness: a longitudinal assessment. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008;5(1):40. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-5-40

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Jones RA, Okely AD, Caputi P, Cliff DP. Perceived and actual competence among overweight and non-overweight children. J Sci Med Sport. 2010;13:589596. PubMed ID: 20580314 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2010.04.002

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Piaget J. The Language and Thought of the Child. London, UK: Psychology Press; 1959.

  • 17.

    Harter S. The Construction of the Self: A Developmental Perspective. New York, NY: Guilford Press; 1999.

  • 18.

    Robinson LE. The relationship between perceived physical competence and fundamental motor skills in preschool children. Child Care Health Dev. 2011;37(4):589596. PubMed ID: 21143273 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2214.2010.01187.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    LeGear M, Greyling L, Sloan E, et al. A window of opportunity? Motor skills and perceptions of competence of children in Kindergarten. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2012;9(1):29. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-9-29

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Toftegaard-Stoeckel J, Groenfeldt V, Andersen LB. Children’s self-perceived bodily competencies and associations with motor skills, body mass index, teachers’ evaluations, and parents’ concerns. J Sports Sci. 2010;28(12):13691375. PubMed ID: 20845214 doi:10.1080/02640414.2010.510845

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Spessato BC, Gabbard C, Robinson L, Valentini NC. Body mass index, perceived and actual physical competence: the relationship among young children. Child Care Health Dev. 2013;39(6):845850. PubMed ID: 23199334 doi:10.1111/cch.12014

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Liong GH, Ridgers ND, Barnett LM. Associations between skill perceptions and young children’s actual fundamental movement skills. Percept Mot Skills. 2015;120(2):591603. doi:10.2466/10.25.PMS.120v18x2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Barnett LM, Ridgers ND, Salmon J. Associations between young children’s perceived and actual ball skill competence and physical activity. J Sci Med Sport. 2015;18(2):167171. PubMed ID: 24685052 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2014.03.001

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Slykerman S, Ridgers ND, Stevenson C, Barnett LM. How important is young children’s actual and perceived movement skill competence to their physical activity? J Sci Med Sport. 2016;19(6):488492. PubMed ID: 26232866 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2015.07.002

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Barnett L, Salmon J, Timperio A, Lubans D, Ridgers N. What is the contribution of motor skill, fitness, and physical activity to children’s self-perceptions of motor competence? J Sci Med Sport. 2017;20:76. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2017.01.025

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Ulrich DA. TGMD-2 Test of Gross Motor Development. 2nd ed. Austin, TX: Pro-Ed Publishers; 2000.

  • 27.

    Barnett LM, Ridgers ND, Zask A, Salmon J. Face validity and reliability of a pictorial instrument for assessing fundamental movement skill perceived competence in young children. J Sci Med Sport. 2015;18(1):98102. PubMed ID: 24485803 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2013.12.004

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Babic MJ, Morgan PJ, Plotnikoff RC, Lonsdale C, White RL, Lubans DR. Physical activity and physical self-concept in youth: systematic review and meta-analysis. Sport Med. 2014;44(11):15891601. doi:10.1007/s40279-014-0229-z

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Barnett LM, Salmon J, Hesketh KD. More active pre-school children have better motor competence at school starting age: an observational cohort study. BMC Public Heal Health. 2016;16(1):1068. doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3742-1

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Tremblay MS. 2014 Global Summit on the Physical Activity of Children. J Phys Act Health. 2014;11(s1):S12. doi:10.1123/jpah.2014-0182

  • 31.

    Woods C, Moyna N, Quinlan A, Tannehill D, Walsh J. The Children’s Sport Participation and Physical Activity Study (CSPPA Study). Research Report No. 1. Dublin, Ireland: School of Health and Human Performance, University and The Irish Sports Council; 2010.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Webber L, Divajeva D, Marsh T, et al. The future burden of obesity-related diseases in the 53 World Health Organization European-Region countries and the impact of effective interventions: a modelling study, Open 4. BMJ Open. 2014;4:e004787. doi:10.1136/%0Abmjopen-2014-004787

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Coppinger T, Lacey S, O’Neill C, Burns C. “Project Spraoi”: a randomized control trial to improve nutrition and physical activity in school children. Contemp Clin Trials Commun. 2016;3:94101. PubMed ID: 29736461 doi:10.1016/j.conctc.2016.04.007

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Bolger LE, Bolger LA, O’ Neill C, et al. Age and sex differences in Fundamental Movement Skills among a cohort of Irish school children. J Mot Learn Dev. 2018;6:81100. doi:10.1123/jmld.2017-0003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    O’Brien W, Belton S, Issartel J. Fundamental movement skill proficiency amongst adolescent youth. Phys Educ Sport Pedagog. 2016;21(6):557571. doi:10.1080/17408989.2015.1017451

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Thomas JR, Nelson JK, Silverman SJ. Research Methods in Physical Activity. 6th ed. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics; 2011.

  • 37.

    Barnett LM, Vazou S, Abbott G, et al. Construct validity of the pictorial scale of perceived movement skill competence. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2016;22:294302. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2015.09.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Lopes VP, Barnett LM, Saraiva L, et al. Validity and reliability of a pictorial instrument for assessing perceived motor competence in Portuguese children. Child Care Health Dev. 2016;42(5):666674. PubMed ID: 27273009 doi:10.1111/cch.12359

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Valentini N, Barnett L, Bandeira PF, Nobre GC, Zanell LW, Sartori RF. The pictorial scale of perceived movement skill competence: determining content and construct validity for Brazilian children. J Mot Learn Dev. 2017:126.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Riddoch CJ, Mattocks C, Deere K, et al. Objective measurement of levels and patterns of physical activity. Arch Dis Child. 2007;92(11):963969. PubMed ID: 17855437 doi:10.1136/adc.2006.112136

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Edwardson C, Gorely T. Epoch length and its effect on physical activity intensity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(5):928934. PubMed ID: 19996997 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181c301f5

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Esliger DW, Copeland JL, Barnes JD, Tremblay MS. Standardizing and optimizing the use of accelerometer data for free-living physical activity monitoring. J Phys Act Health. 2005;2(3):366383. doi:10.1123/jpah.2.3.366

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Evenson KR, Catellier DJ, Gill K, Ondrak KS, McMurray RG. Calibration of two objective measures of physical activity for children. J Sports Sci. 2008;26(14):15571565. PubMed ID: 18949660 doi:10.1080/02640410802334196

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Trost SG, Loprinzi PD, Moore R, Pfeiffer KA. Comparison of accelerometer cut points for predicting activity intensity in youth. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(7):13601368. PubMed ID: 21131873 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e318206476e

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Cohen J. Statistical Power Analysis for the Behavioral Sciences. 2nd ed. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates; 1988.

  • 46.

    Lopes V, Barnett L, Rodrigues L. Is there an association among actual motor competence, perceived motor competence, physical activity, and sedentary behavior in preschool children? J Mot Learn Dev. 2016;4(2):129141. doi:10.1123/jmld.2015-0012

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Barnett LM, Stodden D, Cohen KE, et al. Fundamental movement skills: an important focus. J Teach Phys Educ. 2016;35(3):219225. doi:10.1123/jtpe.2014-0209

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Theeboom M, De Knop P, Weiss MR. Motivational climate, psychological responses, and motor skill development in children’s sport: a field-based intervention study. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 1995;17(3):294311. doi:10.1123/jsep.17.3.294

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 321 321 19
Full Text Views 7 7 0
PDF Downloads 5 5 0