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Background: Aquatic exercise (AE) is a method for exercise and rehabilitation to enhance function for various clients. Objectives: Investigate the effects of head-out AE interventions on the physiological and psychological outcomes of healthy postmenopausal women of age 50–70 years. Search Strategies: Databases searched included Scopus, ScienceDirect, ResearchGate, PubMed/MEDLINE, PEDro, CINAHL, The Cochrane Library, Nursing & Allied Health Collection: Comprehensive, JSTOR, and OTSeeker.com, through January 2015. Search Criteria: Randomized controlled trial and quasi-randomized controlled trial studies. Data Collection and Analysis: Two researchers scanned studies based on inclusion and exclusion criteria. Studies included were critically appraised using the Physiotherapy Evidence Database scale (PEDro scale). Results: A total of 15 studies including postmenopausal women and head-out AE intervention were reviewed. Considerable variation existed in the interventions and assessments. Outcome measures showed anthropometric measures (body mass index, circumference, skinfolds, and body fat) were inconclusive; upper and lower body strength improved; flexibility improved; all functional movements (short-distance walk, long-distance walk/run, power, agility, balance and falls) improved; bone density improved; biochemical and hormonal variables were inconclusive; and quality of life outcomes improved. Conclusions: Head-out AE appears to be an effective training and conditioning method for postmenopausal women to improve strength, flexibility, functional movements, bone density, and quality of life.
Binkley is with the Department of Health and Human Performance, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, TN. Rudd is with the Department of Human Sciences, Middle Tennessee State University, Murfreesboro, TN.