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Background: A common hypothesis is that crime is a major barrier to physical activity, but research does not consistently support this assumption. This article advances research on crime-related safety and physical activity by developing a multilevel conceptual framework and reliable measures applicable across age groups. Methods: Criminologists and physical activity researchers collaborated to develop a conceptual framework. Survey development involved qualitative data collection and resulted in 155 items and 26 scales. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were computed to assess test–retest reliability in a subsample of participants (N = 176). Analyses were conducted separately by age groups. Results: Test–retest reliability for most scales (63 of 104 ICCs across 4 age groups) was “excellent” or “good” (ICC ≥ .60) and only 18 ICCs were “poor” (ICC < .40). Reliability varied by age group. Adolescents (aged 12–17 y) had ICCs above the .40 threshold for 21 of 26 scales (81%). Young adults (aged 18–39 y) and middle-aged adults (aged 40–65 y) had ICCs above .40 for 24 (92%) and 23 (88%) scales, respectively. Older adults (aged 66 y and older) had ICCs above .40 for 18 of 26 scales (69%). Conclusions: The conceptual framework and reliable measures can be used to clarify the inconclusive relationships between crime-related safety and physical activity.
Patch is with the University of California, San Diego, CA, USA; and the Joint Doctoral Program in Public Health, Health Behavior, San Diego State University, CA, USA. Roman and Taylor are with the Department of Criminal Justice, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Conway, Gavand, Cain, Engelberg, and Sallis are with the Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA. Saelens is with the Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington & Seattle Children’s Research Institute, Seattle, WA, USA. Adams is with the School of Nutrition and Health Promotion (SNHP), Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA. Mayes is with the Department of Criminology, Vancouver Island University, Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada. Roesch is with the Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA.