Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $117.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $156.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $222.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $296.00

Background: A common hypothesis is that crime is a major barrier to physical activity, but research does not consistently support this assumption. This article advances research on crime-related safety and physical activity by developing a multilevel conceptual framework and reliable measures applicable across age groups. Methods: Criminologists and physical activity researchers collaborated to develop a conceptual framework. Survey development involved qualitative data collection and resulted in 155 items and 26 scales. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICCs) were computed to assess test–retest reliability in a subsample of participants (N = 176). Analyses were conducted separately by age groups. Results: Test–retest reliability for most scales (63 of 104 ICCs across 4 age groups) was “excellent” or “good” (ICC ≥ .60) and only 18 ICCs were “poor” (ICC < .40). Reliability varied by age group. Adolescents (aged 12–17 y) had ICCs above the .40 threshold for 21 of 26 scales (81%). Young adults (aged 18–39 y) and middle-aged adults (aged 40–65 y) had ICCs above .40 for 24 (92%) and 23 (88%) scales, respectively. Older adults (aged 66 y and older) had ICCs above .40 for 18 of 26 scales (69%). Conclusions: The conceptual framework and reliable measures can be used to clarify the inconclusive relationships between crime-related safety and physical activity.

Patch is with the University of California, San Diego, CA, USA; and the Joint Doctoral Program in Public Health, Health Behavior, San Diego State University, CA, USA. Roman and Taylor are with the Department of Criminal Justice, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA, USA. Conway, Gavand, Cain, Engelberg, and Sallis are with the Department of Family Medicine and Public Health, University of California, San Diego, CA, USA. Saelens is with the Department of Pediatrics, University of Washington & Seattle Children’s Research Institute, Seattle, WA, USA. Adams is with the School of Nutrition and Health Promotion (SNHP), Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA. Mayes is with the Department of Criminology, Vancouver Island University, Nanaimo, British Columbia, Canada. Roesch is with the Department of Psychology, San Diego State University, San Diego, CA, USA.

Patch (cmt@ucsd.edu) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Ding D, Sallis JF, Kerr J, Lee S, Rosenberg DE. Neighborhood environment and physical activity among youth: a review. Am J Prev Med. 2011;41(4):442455. PubMed ID: 21961474 doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2011.06.036

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Foster S, Giles-Corti B. The built environment, neighborhood crime and constrained physical activity: an exploration of inconsistent findings. Prev Med. 2008;47(3):241251. PubMed ID: 18499242 doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2008.03.017

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Yu E, Lippert AM. Neighborhood crime rate, weightrelated behaviors, and obesity: a systematic review of the literature. Sociol Compass. 2016;10(3):187207. doi:10.1111/soc4.12356

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Van Holle V, Deforche B, Van Cauwenberg J, et al. Relationship between the physical environment and different domains of physical activity in European adults: a systematic review. BMC Public Health. 2012;12(1):807. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-807

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Foster S, Hooper P, Knuiman M, Christian H, Bull F, Giles-Corti B. Safe RESIDential Environments? A longitudinal analysis of the influence of crime-related safety on walking. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2016;13(1):22. doi:10.1186/s12966-016-0343-4

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Jack E, McCormack GR. The associations between objectively-determined and self-reported urban form characteristics and neighborhood-based walking in adults. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2014;11(1):71. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-11-71

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Kerr Z, Evenson KR, Moore K, Block R, Roux AV. Changes in walking associated with perceived neighborhood safety and police-recorded crime: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. Prev Med. 2015;73:8893. PubMed ID: 25625690 doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.01.017

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    McGinn AP, Evenson KR, Herring AH, Huston SL& Rodriguez DA. The association of perceived and objectively measured crime with physical activity: a cross-sectional analysis. J Phys Act Health. 2008;5(1):117131. PubMed ID: 18209258 doi:10.1123/jpah.5.1.117

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Lorenc T, Clayton S, Neary D, et al. Crime, fear of crime, environment, and mental health and wellbeing: mapping review of theories and causal pathways. Health Place. 2012;18(4):757765. PubMed ID: 22542441 doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2012.04.001

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Astell-Burt T, Feng X, Kolt GS. Identification of the impact of crime on physical activity depends upon neighbourhood scale: multilevel evidence from 203, 883 Australians. Health Place. 2015;31:120123. PubMed ID: 25497166 doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2014.11.007

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Neckerman KM, Lovasi GS, Davies S, et al. Disparities in urban neighborhood conditions: evidence from GIS measures and field observation in New York City. J Public Health Policy. 2009;30(suppl 1):S264S285. doi:10.1057/jphp.2008.47

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Thornton CM, Conway TL, Cain KL, et al. Disparities in pedestrian streetscape environments by income and race/ethnicity. SSM Pop Health. 2016;2:206216. doi:10.1016/j.ssmph.2016.03.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Covington J, Taylor RB. Fear of crime in urban residential neighborhoods: implications of between and within-neighborhood sources for current models. Sociol Q. 1991;32(2):231249. doi:10.1111/j.1533-8525.1991.tb00355.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Sallis JF, Slymen DJ, Conway TL, et al. Income disparities in perceived neighborhood built and social environment attributes. Health Place. 2011;17(6):12741283. PubMed ID: 21885324 doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2011.02.006

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    LaVeist TA. Minority Populations and Health: An Introduction to Health Disparities in the United States. San Francisco, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Giles-Corti B, Donovan RJ. Socioeconomic status differences in recreational physical activity levels and real and perceived access to a supportive physical environment. Prev Med. 2002;35(6):601611. PubMed ID: 12460528 doi:10.1006/pmed.2002.1115

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Richardson AS, Troxel WM, Ghosh-Dastidar M, et al. Pathways through which higher neighborhood crime is longitudinally associated with greater body mass index. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017;14(1):155. PubMed ID: 29121957 doi:10.1186/s12966-017-0611-y

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Brown BB, Werner CM, Smith KR, Tribby CP, Miller HJ. Physical activity mediates the relationship between perceived crime safety and obesity. Prev Med. 2014;66:140144. PubMed ID: 24963894 doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.06.021

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Bracy NL, Millstein RA, Carlson JA, et al. Is the relationship between the built environment and physical activity moderated by perceptions of crime and safety? Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2014;11(1):24. PubMed ID: 24564971 doi:10.1186/1479-5868-11-24

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Hooker SP, Wilson DK, Griffin SF, Ainsworth BE. Perceptions of environmental supports for physical activity in African American and white adults in a rural county in South Carolina. Prev Chronic Dis. 2005;2(4):A11. PubMed ID: 16164815

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Lachapelle U, Noland RB. Inconsistencies in associations between crime and walking: a reflection of poverty and density. Int J Sustain Transp. 2015;9(2):103115. doi:10.1080/15568318.2012.742947

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Ross CE. Walking, exercising, and smoking: does neighborhood matter? Soc Sci Med. 2000;51(2):265274. PubMed ID: 10832573 doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(99)00451-7

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Van Dyck D, Cerin E, De Bourdeaudhuij I, et al. Moderating effects of age, gender and education on the associations of perceived neighborhood environment attributes with accelerometer-based physical activity: the IPEN adult study. Health Place. 2015;36:6573. PubMed ID: 26454247 doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2015.09.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Ribeiro AI, Pires A, Carvalho MS, Pina MF. Distance to parks and non-residential destinations influences physical activity of older people, but crime doesn’t: a cross-sectional study in a southern European city. BMC Public Health. 2015;15(1):593. doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1879-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    May DC, Rader NE, Goodrum S. A gendered assessment of the “Threat of victimization:” examining gender differences in fear of crime, perceived risk, avoidance, and defensive behaviors. Crim Justice Rev. 2010;35(2):159182. doi:10.1177/0734016809349166

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Roman CG, Chalfin A. Fear of walking outdoors: a multilevel ecologic analysis of crime and disorder. Am J Prev Med. 2008;34(4):306312. PubMed ID: 18374244 doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2008.01.017

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Boone-Heinonen J, Gordon-Larsen P. Life stage and sex specificity in relationships between the built and socioeconomic environments and physical activity. J Epidemiol Community Health. 2011;65(10):847852. PubMed ID: 20930092 doi:10.1136/jech.2009.105064

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Forsyth A, Wall M, Choo T, Larson N, Van Riper D, Neumark-Sztainer D. Perceived and police-reported neighborhood crime: linkages to adolescent activity behaviors and weight status. J Adolesc Health. 2015;57(2):222228. PubMed ID: 26206444 doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2015.05.003

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Gómez JE, Johnson BA, Selva M, Sallis JF. Violent crime and outdoor physical activity among inner-city youth. Prev Med. 2004;39(5):876881. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2004.03.019

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Lane J, Rader NE, Henson B, Fisher BS, May DC. Fear of Crime in the United States: Causes, Consequences, and Contradictions. Durham, NC: Carolina Academic Press; 2014.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Robinson J, Lawton B, Taylor RB, Perkins DD. Longitudinal impacts of incivilities: a multilevel analysis of reactions to crime and block satisfaction. J Quant Criminol. 2003;19:237274. doi:10.1023/A:1024956925170

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Giles-Corti B, Timperio A, Cutt H, et al. Development of a reliable measure of walking within and outside the local neighborhood: RESIDE’s Neighborhood Physical Activity Questionnaire. Prev Med. 2006;42(6):455459. PubMed ID: 16574208 doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2006.01.019

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Taylor RB. Community Criminology: Fundamentals of Spatial and Temporal Scaling, Ecological Indicators, and Selectivity Bias. New York, NY: New York University Press; 2015.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Bourdieu P. Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press; 2003.

  • 35.

    Bronfenbrenner U. The Ecology of Human Development: Experiments in Nature and Design. Cambridge: Harvard University Press; 1979.

  • 36.

    Walker S, Spohn C, DeLone M. The Color of Justice: Race, Ethnicity, and Crime in America. Belmont, CA: Cengage Learning; 2012.

  • 37.

    Sampson RJ, Raudenbush SW, Earls F. Neighborhoods and violent crime: a multilevel study of collective efficacy. Science. 1997;277(5328):918924. PubMed ID: 9252316 doi:10.1126/science.277.5328.918

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Sheidow AJ, Gorman-Smith D, Tolan PH, Henry DB. Family and community characteristics: risk factors for violence exposure in innercity youth. J Community Psychol. 2001;29(3):345360. doi:10.1002/jcop.1021

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    DuBow F, McCabe E, Kaplan G. Reactions to Crime: A Critical Review of the Literature. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office; 1979.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Mair JS, Mair M. Violence prevention and control through environmental modifications. Annu Rev Public Health. 2003;24(1):209225. doi:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.24.100901140826

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Marzbali M, Abdullah A, Razak N, Tilaki M. The influence of crime prevention through environmental design on victimisation and fear of crime. J Environ Psychol. 2012;32(2):7988. doi:10.1016/j.jenvp.2011.12005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Minnery J, Lim B. Measuring crime prevention through environmental design. J Archit Plann Res. 2005;22(4):330341.

  • 43.

    Thornberry TP, Krohn MD, Lizotte AJ, Smith CA, Tobin K. Gang Membership and Delinquency: Gangs in Developmental Perspective. New York, NY: Cambridge University Press; 2003.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Tolan PH, Gorman-Smith D, Henry DB. Chicago Youth Development Study Community and Neighborhood Measure: Construction and Reliability Technical Report. Chicago, IL: Families and Communities Research Group, University of Illinois; 2001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Rader NE, May DC, Goodrum S. An empirical assessment of the “threat of victimization:” considering fear of crime, perceived risk, avoidance, and defensive behaviors. Sociol Spectr. 2007;27(5):475505. doi:10.1080/02732170701434591

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Sirotnik B. Hemet Community Survey Final Report. California State University San Bernadino: Institute of Applied Research and Policy Analysis. Submitted to Hemet Police Department on March 10, 2014. http://iar.csusb.edu/documents/HemetSurveyReportFINAL.pdf. Accessed 15 February 2015.

    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Callanan V. Feeding the Fear of Crime: Crime-Related Media and Support for Three Strikes. New York, NY: LFB Scholarly Publishing LLC; 2005.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Jackson J. Revisiting risk sensitivity in the fear of crime. J Res Crime Delinq. 2011;48(4):513537. doi:10.1177/0022427810395146

  • 49.

    LaGrange RL, Ferraro KF, Supancic M. Perceived risk and fear of crime: role of social and physical incivilities. J Res Crime Delinq. 1992;29(3):311334. doi:10.1177/0022427892029003004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Mason P, Kearns A, Livingston M. “Safe Going:” the influence of crime rates and perceived crime and safety on walking in deprived neighbourhoods. Soc Sci Med. 2013;91:1524. PubMed ID: 23849234 doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.04.011

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    Sharkey PT. Navigating dangerous streets: the sources and consequences of street efficacy. Am Soc Rev. 2006;71(5):826846. doi:10.1177/000312240607100506

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52.

    Chadee D, Austen L, Ditton J. The relationship between likelihood and fear of criminal victimization. Br J Criminol. 2007;4(4):359376.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    Liska A, Baccaglini W. Feeling safe by comparison: crime in the newspapers. Soc Probl. 1990;37(3):360374. doi:10.2307/800748

  • 54.

    Lavrakas PJ, Normoyle J, Skogan WG, Herz EJ, Salem G, Lewis DA. Factors related to citizen involvement in personal, household, and neighborhood anti-crime measures. Citizen Participation and Community Crime Prevention Project, Center for Urban Affairs, Northwestern University; 1980.

    • Export Citation
  • 55.

    Tewksbury R, Mustaine E. College students’ lifestyles and self-protective behaviors: further considerations of the guardianship concept in routine activity theory. Crim Justice Behav. 2003;30:302327. doi:10.1177/0093854803030003003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56.

    Lavrakas PJ, Herz EJ. Citizen participation in neighborhood crime-prevention. Criminol. 1982;20(3-4):479498. doi:10.1111/j.1745-9125.1982.tb00473.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 57.

    Skogan WG, Maxfield MG. Coping With Crime: Individual and Neighborhood Reactions. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage; 1981.

  • 58.

    Giblin M. Examining personal security and avoidance measures in a 12-City Sample. J Res Crime Delinq. 2008;45:359379. doi:10.1177/0022427808322610

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59.

    Sallis JF, Saelens BE, Frank LD, et al. Neighborhood built environment and income: examining multiple health outcomes. Soc Sci Med. 2009;68(7):12851293. PubMed ID: 19232809 doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.01.017

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 60.

    King AC, Sallis JF, Frank LD, et al. Aging in neighborhoods differing in walkability and income: associations with physical activity and obesity in older adults. Soc Sci Med. 2011;73(10):15251533. PubMed ID: 21975025 doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2011.08.032

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61.

    Carlson JA, Saelens BE, Kerr J, et al. Association between neighborhood walkability and GPS-measured walking, bicycling and vehicle time in adolescents. Health Place. 2015;32:17. PubMed ID: 25588788 doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2014.12.008

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 62.

    Frank LD, Saelens BE, Chapman J, et al. Objective assessment of obesogenic environments in youth: geographic information system methods and spatial findings from the neighborhood impact on kids study. Am J Prev Med. 2012;42(5):e47e55. PubMed ID: 22516503 doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2012.02.006

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 63.

    Saelens BE, Sallis JF, Frank LD, et al. Obesogenic neighborhood environments, child and parent obesity: the Neighborhood Impact on Kids Study. Am J Prev Med. 2012;42(5):e57e64. PubMed ID: 22516504 doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2012.02.008

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 64.

    Hurley JC, Hollingshead KE, Todd M, et al. The walking interventions through texting (WalkIT) trial: rationale, design, and protocol for a factorial randomized controlled trial of adaptive interventions for overweight and obese, inactive adults. JMIR Res Protoc. 2015;4(3):e108. PubMed ID: 26362511 doi:10.2196/resprot.4856

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 65.

    Applied Geographic Solutions. Database Methodology Guide, 2010B Update. Newbury Park, CA: Applied Geographic Solutions; 2010.

  • 66.

    Cicchetti DV. Methodological commentary the precision of reliability and validity estimates re-visited: distinguishing between clinical and statistical significance of sample size requirements. J Clin Exp Neuropsychol. 2001;23(5):695700. PubMed ID: 11778646 doi:10.1076/jcen.23.5.695.1249

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 67.

    Fleiss JL. The Design and Analysis of Clinical Experiments. New York, NY: John Wiley & Sons; 1986.

  • 68.

    Lexell JE, Downham DY. How to assess the reliability of measurements in rehabilitation. Am J Phys Med Rehab. 2005;84(9):719723. doi:10.1097/01.phm.0000176452.17771.20

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 394 395 52
Full Text Views 374 114 0
PDF Downloads 96 22 0