Restricted access

Purchase article

USD $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD $115.00

1 year subscription

USD $153.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD $218.00

2 year subscription

USD $285.00

Background: Children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) are at increased risk for poor health and obesity. The authors describe obesity-related movement behaviors in children with ADHD, determine higher risk groups, and compare with children with other disorders. Methods: Physical activity (PA), sleep, and screen time of children with ADHD (aged 6–18 y) were compared with recommendations and with behaviors of children with autism, asthma, and a normative group using 2011 National Survey of Child Health data. Results: Approximately one-third of children with ADHD participated in daily PA and half in sports in the past year. Older children with ADHD were less likely to get daily PA, get enough sleep, and limit screen time to <2 hours per day. Obese children had lower odds of daily PA. Children who had lower socioeconomic status, or severe ADHD, had lower odds of sports participation. Children with ADHD had 50% lower odds of sports participation than children with asthma. Conclusions: Children with ADHD did not engage in recommended amounts of PA, sleep, and screen time. Children with ADHD who are older, poor, obese, and/or with more severe symptoms are at higher risk for suboptimal movement behaviors. These domains represent novel treatment targets in ADHD youth.

Tandon, Sasser, Gonzalez, Whitlock, Christakis, and Stein are with the Center for Child Health, Behavior and Development, Seattle Children’s Research Institute, Seattle, WA, USA. Tandon and Christakis are also with the Departments of Pediatrics, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Tandon (Pooja@uw.edu) is corresponding author.
Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Article Sections
References
  • 1.

    Visser SNDanielson MLBitsko RHet al. Trends in the parent-report of health care provider-diagnosed and medicated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: United States, 2003–2011. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2014;53(1):3446.e2. PubMed ID: 24342384 doi:10.1016/j.jaac.2013.09.001

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Kessler RCAdler LBarkley Ret al. The prevalence and correlates of adult ADHD in the United States: results from the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Am J Psychiatry. 2006;163(4):716723. PubMed ID: 16585449 doi:10.1176/ajp.2006.163.4.716

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Nigg JT. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and adverse health outcomes. Clin Psychol Rev. 2013;33(2):215228. PubMed ID: 23298633 doi:10.1016/j.cpr.2012.11.005

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Schoenfelder ENKollins SH. Topical review: ADHD and health-risk behaviors: toward prevention and health promotion. J Pediatr Psychol. 2016;41(7):735740. PubMed ID: 26717959 doi:10.1093/jpepsy/jsv162

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Kim JMutyala BAgiovlasitis SFernhall B. Health behaviors and obesity among US children with attention deficit hyperactivity disorder by gender and medication use. Prev Med. 2011;52(3–4):218222. PubMed ID: 21241728

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Byrd HCCurtin CAnderson SE. Attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder and obesity in US males and females, age 8–15 years: National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey 2001–2004. Pediatr Obes. 2013;8(6):445453. PubMed ID: 23325553 doi:10.1111/j.2047-6310.2012.00124.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Cortese SRamos Olazagasti MAKlein RGCastellanos FXProal EMannuzza S. Obesity in men with childhood ADHD: a 33-year controlled, prospective, follow-up study. Pediatrics. 2013;131(6):17311738. PubMed ID: 23690516 doi:10.1542/peds.2012-0540

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Cook BGLi DHeinrich KM. Obesity, physical activity, and sedentary behavior of youth with learning disabilities and ADHD. J Learn Disabil. 2015;48(6):563576. PubMed ID: 24449262 doi:10.1177/0022219413518582

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Best JR. Effects of physical activity on children’s executive function: contributions of experimental research on aerobic exercise. Dev Rev. 2010;30(4):331351. PubMed ID: 21818169 doi:10.1016/j.dr.2010.08.001

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Weiss MDBaer SAllan BASaran KSchibuk H. The screens culture: impact on ADHD. Atten Defic Hyperact Disord. 2011;3(4):327334. PubMed ID: 21948003 doi:10.1007/s12402-011-0065-z

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Turnbull KReid GJMorton JB. Behavioral sleep problems and their potential impact on developing executive function in children. Sleep. 2013;36(7):10771084. PubMed ID: 23814345 doi:10.5665/sleep.2814

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Sallis JProchaska JTaylor W. A review of correlates of physical activity of children and adolescents. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32:963975. PubMed ID: 10795788 doi:10.1097/00005768-200005000-00014

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Podolski C-LNigg JT. Parent stress and coping in relation to child ADHD severity and associated child disruptive behavior problems. J Clin Child Psychol. 2001;30(4):503513. PubMed ID: 11708238 doi:10.1207/S15374424JCCP3004_07

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Midcourse Report Subcommittee of the President’s Council on Fitness Sports & Nutrition. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans Midcourse Report: Strategies to Increase Physical Activity Among Youth. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services; 2012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Gapin JILabban JDEtnier JL. The effects of physical activity on attention deficit hyperactivity disorder symptoms: the evidence. Prev Med. 2011;52(suppl 1):S70S74. doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2011.01.022

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Verburgh LKonigs MScherder EJOosterlaan J. Physical exercise and executive functions in preadolescent children, adolescents and young adults: a meta-analysis. Br J Sports Med. 2014;48(12):973979. PubMed ID: 23467962 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2012-091441

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Kohl HW IIICook HD. Educating the Student Body: Taking Physical Activity and Physical Education to School. Washington, DC: Institute of Medicine; 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Pontifex MBSaliba BJRaine LBPicchietti DLHillman CH. Exercise improves behavioral, neurocognitive, and scholastic performance in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Pediatr. 2013;162(3):543551. PubMed ID: 23084704 doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2012.08.036

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Hoza BSmith ALShoulberg EKet al. A randomized trial examining the effects of aerobic physical activity on attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in young children. J Abnorm Child Psychol. 2015;43(4):655667. PubMed ID: 25201345 doi:10.1007/s10802-014-9929-y

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Schoenfelder ESasser TStein MA. Physical exercise in the management of ADHD. In: Noordsy D ed. Lifestyle Psychiatry: Using Exercise Diet and Mindfulness to Manage Psychiatric Disorders. Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association Publishing; 2019: Chap 9 141152.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Pennington BFOzonoff S. Executive functions and developmental psychopathology. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 1996;37(1):5187. PubMed ID: 8655658 doi:10.1111/j.1469-7610.1996.tb01380.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Barkley RA. Behavioral inhibition, sustained attention, and executive functions: constructing a unifying theory of ADHD. Psychol Bull. 1997;121(1):6594. PubMed ID: 9000892 doi:10.1037/0033-2909.121.1.65

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Williams KEBerthelsen DWalker SNicholson JM. A developmental cascade model of behavioral sleep problems and emotional and attentional self-regulation across early childhood. Behav Sleep Med. 2017;15(1):121. PubMed ID: 26619760 doi:10.1080/15402002.2015.1065410

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Molina BSGWalther CAPCheong JPedersen SLGnagy EMPelham WE. Heavy alcohol use in early adulthood as a function of childhood ADHD: developmentally specific mediation by social impairment and delinquency. Exp Clin Psychopharmacol. 2014;22(2):110121. PubMed ID: 24611838 doi:10.1037/a0035656

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Tan BWPooley JASpeelman CP. A meta-analytic review of the efficacy of physical exercise interventions on cognition in individuals with autism spectrum disorder and ADHD. J Autism Dev Disord. 2016;46(9):31263143. PubMed ID: 27412579 doi:10.1007/s10803-016-2854-x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Chaput JPCarson VGray CETremblay MS. Importance of all movement behaviors in a 24 hour period for overall health. Int J Environ Res Public Health. 2014;11(12):1257512581. PubMed ID: 25485978 doi:10.3390/ijerph111212575

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Suchert VHanewinkel RIsensee B. Sedentary behavior and indicators of mental health in school-aged children and adolescents: a systematic review. Prev Med. 2015;76:4857. PubMed ID: 25895839 doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.03.026

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Carson VKuzik NHunter Set al. Systematic review of sedentary behavior and cognitive development in early childhood. Prev Med. 2015;78:115122. PubMed ID: 26212631 doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.07.016

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Sung VHiscock HSciberras EEfron D. Sleep problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: prevalence and the effect on the child and family. Arch Pediatr Adolesc Med. 2008;162(4):336342. PubMed ID: 18391142 doi:10.1001/archpedi.162.4.336

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Chronis AMLahey BBPelham WE JrKipp HLBaumann BLLee SS. Psychopathology and substance abuse in parents of young children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 2003;42(12):14241432. PubMed ID: 14627877 doi:10.1097/00004583-200312000-00009

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Blumberg SJOlson LFrankel MROsborn LSrinath KPGiambo P. Design and operation of the National Survey of Children’s Health, 2003. Vital Health Stat 1. 2005(43):1131.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Hagan JFShaw JSDuncan PM. Bright Futures: Guidelines for Health Supervision of Infants Children and Adolescents. Elk Grove Village, IL: American Academy of Pediatrics; 2008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Bioulac SArfi LBouvard MP. Attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder and video games: a comparative study of hyperactive and control children. Eur Psychiatry. 2008;23(2):134141. PubMed ID: 18206354 doi:10.1016/j.eurpsy.2007.11.002

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Mazurek MOEngelhardt CR. Video game use in boys with autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, or typical development. Pediatrics. 2013;132(2):260266. PubMed ID: 23897915 doi:10.1542/peds.2012-3956

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Reid Chassiakos YLRadesky JChristakis DMoreno MACross C; COUNCIL ON COMMUNICATIONS AND MEDIA. Children and adolescents and digital media. Pediatrics. 2016;138(5):e20162593. PubMed ID: 27940795 doi:10.1542/peds.2016-2593

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Cortese SKonofal EYateman NMouren MCLecendreux M. Sleep and alertness in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: a systematic review of the literature. Sleep. 2006;29(4):504511. PubMed ID: 16676784

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Stein MAWeiss MHlavaty L. ADHD treatments, sleep, and sleep problems: complex associations. Neurotherapeutics. 2012;9(3):509517. PubMed ID: 22718078 doi:10.1007/s13311-012-0130-0

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Gruber RCassoff JFrenette SWiebe SCarrier J. Impact of sleep extension and restriction on children’s emotional lability and impulsivity. Pediatrics. 2012;130(5):e1155e1161. PubMed ID: 23071214 doi:10.1542/peds.2012-0564

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Becker SPLienesch JA. Nighttime media use in adolescents with ADHD: links to sleep problems and internalizing symptoms. Sleep Med. 2018;51:171178. PubMed ID: 30223187 doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2018.06.021

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Engelhardt CRMazurek MOSohl K. Media use and sleep among boys with autism spectrum disorder, ADHD, or typical development. Pediatrics. 2013;132(6):10811089. PubMed ID: 24249825 doi:10.1542/peds.2013-2066

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Akinbami LJOgden CL. Childhood overweight prevalence in the United States: the impact of parent-reported height and weight. Obesity. 2009;17(8):15741580. doi:10.1038/oby.2009.1

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Schoenfelder EMoreno MWilner MWhitlock KBMendoza JA. Piloting a mobile health intervention to increase physical activity for adolescents with ADHD. Prev Med Rep. 2017;6:210213. PubMed ID: 28373931 doi:10.1016/j.pmedr.2017.03.003

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Subcommittee on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder Steering Committee on Quality Improvement and ManagementWolraich MBrown LBrown RTet al. ADHD: clinical practice guideline for the diagnosis, evaluation, and treatment of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in children and adolescents. Pediatrics. 2011;128(5):10071022. PubMed ID: 22003063 doi:10.1542/peds.2011-2654

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Halperin JMHealey DM. The influences of environmental enrichment, cognitive enhancement, and physical exercise on brain development: can we alter the developmental trajectory of ADHD? Neurosci Biobehav Rev. 2011;35(3):621634. PubMed ID: 20691725 doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2010.07.006

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
Article Metrics
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 370 370 107
Full Text Views 21 21 5
PDF Downloads 5 5 1
Altmetric Badge
PubMed
Google Scholar
Cited By