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Background: To investigate the association between levels of active transport and leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) with C-reactive protein, white blood cell count, body mass index, waist circumference, and lipids in a large representative sample of adults residing in the United States. Methods: Cross-sectional data from the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. Adjusted multinomial logistic regressions were carried out to quantify associations between levels of self-reported active transport (or LTPA) and quintiles of anthropometric measures and serum markers. Results: A total of 3248 adults were included. For serum inflammatory biomarkers, the authors observed a lower likelihood of being in the top quintile groups of circulating C-reactive protein (adjusted odds ratio [aOR]: 0.60; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.40–0.90) and white blood cell count (aOR: 0.65; 95% CI, 0.44–0.95) with engaging in low to medium levels of active transport but not with high levels of active transport. Higher levels of LTPA were associated with lower likelihood of having high levels of serum inflammatory biomarkers (aOR: 0.60; 95% CI, 0.42–0.86 in the top C-reactive protein group and aOR: 0.58; 95% CI, 0.39–0.87 in top white blood cell group). Conclusions: Promoting active transport and/or LTPA may be a beneficial strategy to improving some, but not all, cardiometabolic health outcomes.
Smith is with the Cambridge Centre for Sport and Exercise Sciences, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Stubbs is with Physiotherapy Department, South London and Maudsley NHS Foundation Trust, London, United Kingdom; Health Service & Population Research Department, Institute of Psychiatry, Psychology & Neuroscience, King’s College London, London, United Kingdom; and the Faculty of Health, Social Care and Education, Anglia Ruskin University, Chelmsford, United Kingdom. Hu is with the Department of Sport Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China. Veronese is with Consiglio Nazionale delle Ricerche Area della Ricerca di Padova, Neuroscience Institute, Padova, Italy. Vancampfort is with University Psychiatric Centre, Catholic University Leuven, Kortenberg, Belgium. Williams is with the School of Sport and Health Sciences, University of Exeter, Exeter, United Kingdom. Vicinanza is with the Department of Computing and Technology, Anglia Ruskin University, Cambridge, United Kingdom. Jackson is with the Department of Behavioural Science and Health, UCL, London, United Kingdom. Ying is with the Department of Health Management, The Third Xiangya Hospital, Central South University, Changsha, China. López-Sánchez is with the Faculty of Sport Sciences, University of Murcia, Murcia, Spain. Yang is with the Department of Epidemiology, Center for Public Health, Vienna, Austria.