A Controlled Evaluation of a CBPR Intervention’s Effects on Physical Activity and the Related Psychosocial Constructs Among Minority Children in an Underserved Community

in Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $115.00

1 year subscription

USD  $153.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $218.00

2 year subscription

USD  $285.00

Background: Effective physical activity interventions are needed for children because health behaviors track into adulthood, and risk factors for diseases begin early in life. No study has determined whether an intervention designed using a Community-Based Participatory Research approach can improve moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and the related psychosocial constructs in underserved children. This study determined whether improvements in MVPA and related psychosocial constructs (self-efficacy, knowledge, beliefs, attitudes, and skills) occurred following a Community-Based Participatory Research intervention in underserved, rural children. It was then determined if these constructs were mediators of MVPA. Methods: Two fifth-grade classes at a school (n = 19 and n = 20) were randomly assigned to an intervention or comparison group. The intervention group participated in a 4-week intervention designed to improve MVPA (wGT3X-BT accelerometer; ActiGraph, Pensacola, FL) and the related psychosocial constructs (written survey). Groups were assessed prior to and immediately following the intervention. Results: There were no differences at baseline between groups. MVPA (30.0 [4.4] min), knowledge, and skill scores were significantly higher in the intervention group compared with the comparison group at follow-up (P < .05). Knowledge and skills were mediating variables of MVPA. Conclusions: Priority should be placed on research that determines the sustained impact of similar Community-Based Participatory Research interventions.

Hamilton is with the Department of Health and Human Performance, The University of Tennessee at Chattanooga, Chattanooga, TN. Richardson is with the Department of Kinesiology, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL. McGraw is with Aliceville Middle School, Aliceville, AL. Owens is the Prevention Coordinator in Aliceville, AL. Higginbotham is with the Department of Community and Rural Medicine, The University of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, AL.

Hamilton (kara-hamilton@utc.edu) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Aubert S, Barnes JD, Abdeta C, et al. Global Matrix 3.0 physical activity report card grades for children and youth: results and analysis from 49 countries. J Phys Act Health. 2018;15(suppl 2):S251S273. PubMed ID: 30475137 doi:10.1123/jpah.2018-0472

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Lawman HG, Wilson DK, Van Horn ML, et al. The relationship between psychosocial correlates and physical activity in underserved adolescent boys and girls in the ACT trial. J Phys Act Health. 2011;8(2):253261. PubMed ID: 21359129 doi:10.1123/jpah.8.2.253

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee. 2018 Physical Activity Guidelines Advisory Committee Scientific Report. Washington, DC: Department of Health and Human Services, 2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Youth Risk Behavior Survey: Alabama and United Stated 2017. 2019. www.cdc.gov/healthyyouth/yrbs/factsheets/index.htm#compare. Accessed February 18, 2019.

    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Physical activity. https://www.cdc.gov/physicalactivity/index.html. Accessed March 11, 2014.

    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Marques A, Santos T, Martins J, et al. The association between physical activity and chronic diseases in European adults. Eur J Sport Sci. 2018;18(1):140149. PubMed ID: 29134857 doi:10.1080/17461391.2017.1400109

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Arem H, Moore SC, Park Y, et al. Physical activity and cancer-specific mortality in the NIH-AARP Diet and Health Study cohort. Int J Cancer. 2014;135(2):423431. PubMed ID: 24311115 doi:10.1002/ijc.28659

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Gunnell DJ, Frankel SJ, Nanchahal K, et al. Childhood obesity and adult cardiovascular mortality: a 57-y follow-up study based on the Boyd Orr cohort. Am J Clin Nutr. 1998;67(6):11111118. PubMed ID: 9625081 doi:10.1093/ajcn/67.6.1111

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Boreham C, Riddoch C. The physical activity, fitness and health of children. J Sports Sci. 2001;19(12):915929. doi:10.1080/026404101317108426

  • 10.

    United Health Foundation. America’s health rankings annual report: physical inactivity. 2019. https://www.americashealthrankings.org/explore/annual/measure/Sedentary/state/AL. Accessed February 18, 2019.

    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    The Office of Primary Care and Rural Health, Alabama Department of Public Health. Selected health status indicators by county: Pickens county the Office of Primary Care and Rural Health. https://www.alabamapublichealth.gov/ruralhealth/assets/Pickens13.pdf. Accessed February 1, 2019.

    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Dobbins M, Husson H, DeCorby K, et al. School-based physical activity programs for promoting physical activity and fitness in children and adolescents aged 6 to 18. Cochrane Database Syst Rev. 2013;(2):CD007651.

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Strong WB, Malina RM, Blimkie CJ, et al. Evidence based physical activity for school-age youth. J Pediatr. 2005;146(6):732737. PubMed ID: 15973308 doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2005.01.055

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Ryan RM, Deci EL. Self-determination theory and the facilitation of intrinsic motivation, social development, and well-being. Am Psychol. 2000;55(1):6878. PubMed ID: 11392867 doi:10.1037/0003-066X.55.1.68

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Baranowski T, Anderson C, Carmack C. Mediating variable framework in physical activity interventions. How are we doing? How might we do better? Am J Prev Med. 1998;15(4):266297. PubMed ID: 9838973 doi:10.1016/S0749-3797(98)00080-4

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Kohl HW 3rd, Hobbs KE. Development of physical activity behaviors among children and adolescents. Pediatr. 1998;101(3, pt 2):549554.

  • 17.

    Dishman RK, Motl RW, Saunders R, et al. Enjoyment mediates effects of a school-based physical-activity intervention. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(3):478487. PubMed ID: 15741848 doi:10.1249/01.MSS.0000155391.62733.A7

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Dishman RK, Motl RW, Saunders R, et al. Self-efficacy partially mediates the effect of a school-based physical-activity intervention among adolescent girls. Prev Med. 2004;38(5):628636. PubMed ID: 15066366 doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2003.12.007

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Pate RR, Ward DS, Saunders RP, et al. Promotion of physical activity among high-school girls: a randomized controlled trial. Am J Public Health. 2005;95(9):15821587. PubMed ID: 16118370 doi:10.2105/AJPH.2004.045807

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Gray L, Thomas N, Lewis L. Teachers’ Use of Educational Technology in U.S. Public Schools: 2009. Washington, DC: National Center for Education Statistics; 2010.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Schwab M, Syme SL. On paradigms, community participation, and the future of public health. Am J Public Health. 1997;87(12):20492051. PubMed ID: 9431303 doi:10.2105/AJPH.87.12.2049

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Israel BA, Eng E, Schulz AJ, et al. Methods for Community-Based Participatory Research for Health. San Franciso, CA: Jossey-Bass; 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Robinson LE, Wadsworth DD, Webster EK, et al. School reform: the role of physical education policy in physical activity of elementary school children in Alabama’s Black Belt Region. Am J Health Promot. 2014;28(3 suppl):S72S76. PubMed ID: 24380469 doi:10.4278/ajhp.130430-ARB-207

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    The Office of Primary Care and Rural Health. Selected health status indicators: Black Belt Action Commission. 2007. http://www.adph.org/ruralhealth/assets/BBACData.pdf. Accessed February 18, 2019.

    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Baranowski T, Baranowski JC, Cullen KW, et al. The Fun, Food, and Fitness Project (FFFP): the Baylor GEMS pilot study. Ethn Dis. 2003;13(1)(suppl 1):S30S39. PubMed ID: 12713209

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. 2000. National Center for Health Statistics: clinical growth charts. https://www.cdc.gov/growthcharts/clinical_charts.htm. Accessed February 18, 2019.

    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Hamilton KC, Richardson MT, Owens T, et al. A community-based participatory research intervention to promote physical activity among rural children: theory and design. J Fam Health. 2017;40(1):310. doi:10.1097/FCH.0000000000000132

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Kosma M, Cardinal BJ, McCubbin JA. A pilot study of a web-based physical activity motivational program for adults with physical disabilities. Disabil Rehabil. 2005;27(23):14351442. PubMed ID: 16418058 doi:10.1080/09638280500242713

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    ActiGraph. ActiLife 6 basic training. 2012. https://www.actigraphcorp.com/webinars/. Accessed March 16, 2014.

    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Nilsson A, Ekelund U, Yngve A, et al. Assessing physical activity among children with accelerometers using different time sampling intervals and placements. Pediatr Exerc Sci. 2002;14:8796. doi:10.1123/pes.14.1.87

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Mattocks C, Leary S, Ness A, et al. Calibration of an accelerometer during free-living activities in children. Int J Pediatr Obes. 2007;2(4):218226. PubMed ID: 17852552 doi:10.1080/17477160701408809

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Choi L, Liu Z, Matthews CE, et al. Validation of accelerometer wear and nonwear time classification algorithm. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(2):357364. PubMed ID: 20581716 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181ed61a3

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Ward DS, Evenson KR, Vaughn A, et al. Accelerometer use in physical activity: best practices and research recommendations. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37 (11)(suppl):S582S588. PubMed ID: 16294121 doi:10.1249/01.mss.0000185292.71933.91

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Norman GJ, Sallis JF, Gaskins R. Comparability and reliability of paper- and computer-based measures of psychosocial constructs for adolescent physical activity and sedentary behaviors. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2005;76(3):315323. PubMed ID: 16270708 doi:10.1080/02701367.2005.10599302

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Storch EA, Milsom VA, Debraganza N, et al. Peer victimization, psychosocial adjustment, and physical activity in overweight and at-risk-for-overweight youth. J Pediatr Psychol. 2007;32(1):8089. doi:10.1093/jpepsy/jsj113

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Hardie Murphy M, Rowe DA, Woods CB. Sports participation in youth as a predictor of physical activity: a 5-year longitudinal study. J Phys Act Health. 2016;13(7):704711. PubMed ID: 26800567 doi:10.1123/jpah.2015-0526

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Hardie Murphy M, Rowe DA, Belton S, et al. Validity of a two-item physical activity questionnaire for assessing attainment of physical activity guidelines in youth. BMC Public Health. 2015;15:1080. PubMed ID: 26498827 doi:10.1186/s12889-015-2418-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Ajzen I, Fishbein M. Understanding Attitudes and Predicting Social Behavior. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall; 1980.

  • 39.

    Reynolds KD, Killen JD, Bryson SW, et al. Psychosocial predictors of physical activity in adolescents. Prev Med. 1990;19(5):541551. PubMed ID: 2235921 doi:10.1016/0091-7435(90)90052-L

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    McAuley E, Mihalko SL. Measuring Exercise-Related Self-Efficacy. Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology; 1998.

  • 41.

    Caballero B, Clay T, Davis SM, et al. Pathways: a school-based, randomized controlled trial for the prevention of obesity in American Indian schoolchildren. Am J Clin Nutr. 2003;78(5):10301038. PubMed ID: 14594792 doi:10.1093/ajcn/78.5.1030

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Edmundson E, Parcel GS, Feldman HA, et al. The effects of the Child and Adolescent Trial for Cardiovascular Health upon psychosocial determinants of diet and physical activity behavior. Prev Med. 1996;25(4):442454. PubMed ID: 8812822 doi:10.1006/pmed.1996.0076

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Harrell JS, McMurray RG, Bangdiwala SI, et al. Effects of a school-based intervention to reduce cardiovascular disease risk factors in elementary-school children: the Cardiovascular Health in Children (CHIC) study. J Pediatr. 1996;128(6):797805. PubMed ID: 8648539 doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(96)70332-3

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Hume C, Ball K, Salmon J. Development and reliability of a self-report questionnaire to examine children’s perceptions of the physical activity environment at home and in the neighbourhood. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2006;3:16. PubMed ID: 16846519 doi:10.1186/1479-5868-3-16

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Mackinnon DP, Dwyer JH. Estimating mediated effects in prevention studies. Eval Rev. 1993;17(2):144158. doi:10.1177/0193841X9301700202

  • 46.

    Trost SG, Pate RR, Saunders R, et al. A prospective study of the determinants of physical activity in rural fifth-grade children. Prev Med. 1997;26(2):257263. PubMed ID: 9085396 doi:10.1006/pmed.1996.0137

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Curtis AD, Hinckson EA, Water TC. Physical activity is not play: perceptions of children and parents from deprived areas. New Zealand Med J. 2012;125(1365):3847. PubMed ID: 23254499

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Taymoori P, Lubans DR. Mediators of behavior change in two tailored physical activity interventions for adolescent girls. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2008;9(5):605619. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.09.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Wilson DK, Evans AE, Williams J, et al. A preliminary test of a student-centered intervention on increasing physical activity in underserved adolescents. Ann Behav Med. 2005;30(2):119124. PubMed ID: 16173908 doi:10.1207/s15324796abm3002_4

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Duncan JS, Hopkins WG, Schofield G, et al. Effects of weather on pedometer-determined physical activity in children. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2008;40(8):14321438. PubMed ID: 18614949 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31816e2b28

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    Fisher A, van Jaarsveld CH, Llewellyn CH, et al. Environmental influences on children’s physical activity: quantitative estimates using a twin design. PLoS One. 2010;5(4):e10110. PubMed ID: 20422046 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0010110

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52.

    Riddoch CJ, Mattocks C, Deere K, et al. Objective measurement of levels and patterns of physical activity. Arch Dis Child. 2007;92(11):963969. PubMed ID: 17855437 doi:10.1136/adc.2006.112136

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    Beighle A, Alderman B, Morgan CF, et al. Seasonality in children’s pedometer-measured physical activity levels. Res Q Exerc Sport. 2008;79(2):256260. PubMed ID: 18664049 doi:10.1080/02701367.2008.10599488

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54.

    Belanger M, Gray-Donald K, O’Loughlin J, et al. Influence of weather conditions and season on physical activity in adolescents. Ann Epidemiol. 2009;19(3):180186. PubMed ID: 19217000 doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2008.12.008

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 55.

    Aoyagi Y, Shephard RJ. Habitual physical activity and health in the elderly: the Nakanojo Study. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2010;10(suppl 1):S236S243. doi:10.1111/j.1447-0594.2010.00589.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56.

    Spiliotopoulou G. Reliability reconsidered: Cronbach’s alpha and paediatric assessment in occupational therapy. Aust Occup Ther J. 2009;56(3):150155. PubMed ID: 20854508 doi:10.1111/j.1440-1630.2009.00785.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 57.

    Bandura A. Human agency in social cognitive theory. Am Psychol. 1989;44(9):11751184. PubMed ID: 2782727 doi:10.1037/0003-066X.44.9.1175

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 179 179 6
Full Text Views 14 14 2
PDF Downloads 8 8 1