Do Physical Activity, Caloric Intake, and Sleep Vary Together Day to Day? Exploration of Intraindividual Variability in 3 Key Health Behaviors

in Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $115.00

1 year subscription

USD  $153.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $218.00

2 year subscription

USD  $285.00

Background: Little is known about how daily fluctuations in health behaviors relate to chronic disease risk. The goal of this study was to examine whether variability in physical activity, caloric intake, and sleep is related to body composition (body mass index and body fat percentage). Methods: Healthy adults (N = 103; 64% female) were monitored for 7 days to assess physical activity (SenseWear Armband), caloric intake (daily food diaries), and sleep duration and timing (Actiwatch Spectrum). Data were analyzed using correlations (between- and within-subjects correlations) and regression. Results: The results demonstrated that variabilities in physical activity, caloric intake, and sleep were unrelated. Caloric intake and sleep variability were unrelated to body composition. At greater levels of physical activity variability, any level of physical activity was protective for body composition. Conclusions: These results suggest that among healthy adults, variabilities in health behaviors may be independent of each other, and physical activity variability may be more strongly related to body composition among those who are less active.

Hooker, Oswald, and Baron are with the Department of Behavioral Sciences, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago, IL. Hooker is currently at HealthPartners Institute, Minneapolis, MN. Oswald and Reid are with the Feinberg School of Medicine, Northwestern University, Chicago, IL. Baron is currently at the Department of Family & Preventive Medicine, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, UT.

Baron (kelly.baron@utah.edu) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Loef M, Walach H. The combined effects of healthy lifestyle behaviors on all cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Prev Med. 2012;55:163–170. PubMed ID: 22735042 doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2012.06.017

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Loprinzi PD, Davis RE. Effects of individual, combined, and isolated physical activity behaviors on all-cause mortality and CVD-specific mortality: prospective cohort study among U.S. adults. Physiol Behav. 2015;151:355–359. PubMed ID: 26222613 doi:10.1016/j.physbeh.2015.07.032

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Bleich SN, Cutler D, Murray C, Adams A. Why is the developed world obese? Ann Rev Publ Health. 2008;29:273–295. doi:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.29.020907.090954

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Marshall NS, Glozier N, Grunstein RR. Is sleep duration related to obesity? A critical review of the epidemiological evidence. Sleep Med Rev. 2008;12:289–298. PubMed ID: 18485764 doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2008.03.001

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Baron KG, Ried KJ, Malkani RG, Kang J, Zee PC. Sleep variability among older adults with insomnia: associations with sleep quality and cardiometabolic disease risk. Behav Sleep Med. 2017;15:144–157. PubMed ID: 26745754 doi:10.1080/15402002.2015.1120200

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Chontong S, Saetung S, Reutrakul S. Higher sleep variability is associated with poorer glycaemic control in patients with type 1 diabetes. J Sleep Res. 2016;25:438–444. PubMed ID: 26912272 doi:10.1111/jsr.12393

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Bei B, Wiley JF, Trinder J, Manber R. Beyond the mean: a systematic review on the correlates of daily intraindividual variability of sleep/wake patterns. Sleep Med Rev. 2016;28:108–124. PubMed ID: 26588182 doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2015.06.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Okun ML, Reynolds CF III, Buysse DJ, et al. Sleep variability, health-related practices and inflammatory markers in a community dwelling sample of older adults. Psychosom Med. 2011;73:142–150. PubMed ID: 21097658 doi:10.1097/PSY.0b013e3182020d08

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Pedersen ESL, Danquah IH, Petersen CB, Tolstrup JS. Intra-individual variability in day-to-day and month-to-month measurements of physical activity and sedentary behaviour at work and in leisure-time among Danish adults. BMC Public Health. 2016;16:1222. PubMed ID: 27914468 doi:10.1186/s12889-016-3890-3

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Baron KG, Reid KJ, Kim T, et al. Circadian timing and alignment in healthy adults: associations with BMI, body fat, caloric intake, and physical activity. Int J Obes. 2017;41:203–209. doi:10.1038/ijo.2016.194

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Drenowatz C, Eisenmann JC. Validation of the SenseWear Armband at high intensity exercise. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2011;111:883–887. PubMed ID: 20972880 doi:10.1007/s00421-010-1695-0

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Fruin ML, Rankin JW. Validity of a multi-sensor armband in estimating rest and exercise energy expenditure. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2004;36:1063–1069. doi:10.1249/01.MSS.0000128144.91337.38

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Johannsen DL, Calabro MA, Stewart J, et al. Accuracy of armband monitors for measuring daily energy expenditure in healthy adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42:2134–2140. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181e0b3ff

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Bland JM, Altman DG. Calculating correlation coefficients with repeated observations: part 1—correlations within subjects. BMJ. 1995;310:446. PubMed ID: 7873953 doi:10.1136/bmj.310.6977.446

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Henson J, Yates T, Biddle SJH, et al. Associations of objectively measured sedentary behavior and physical activity with markers of cardiometabolic health. Diabetologia. 2012;56:1012–1020. doi:10.1007/s00125-013-2845-9

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    McCrory MA, Suen VM, Roberts SB. Biobehavioral influences on energy intake and adult weight gain. J Nutr. 2002;132:3830S–3834S. doi:10.1093/jn/132.12.3830S

  • 17.

    World Health Organization. Obesity and overweight fact sheet. 2018. https://www.who.int/en/news-room/fact-sheets/detail/obesity-and-overweight. Accessed November 8, 2019.

    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Mezick EJ, Matthews KA, Hall M, et al. Intra-individual variability in sleep duration and fragmentation: associations with stress. Psychoneuroendocrinology. 2009;34:1346–1354. doi:10.1016/j.psyneuen.2009.04.005

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Knutston KL, Rathouz PJ, Yan LL, Liu K, Lauderdale DS. Intra-individual daily and yearly variability in actigraphically recorded sleep measures: the CARDIA study. Sleep. 2007;30:793–796. doi:10.1093/sleep/30.6.793

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Sanchez-Ortuno MM, Edinger JD. Internight sleep variability: its clinical significance and responsiveness to treatment in primary and comorbid insomnia. J Sleep Res. 2012;21:527–534. PubMed ID: 22463493 doi:10.1111/j.1365-2869.2012.01010.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Lemola S, Ledermann T, Friedman E. Variability of sleep duration is related to subjective sleep quality and subjective well-being: an actigraphy study. PLoS One. 2013;8:e71292. PubMed ID: 23967186 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0071292

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    He F, Bixler EO, Berg A, et al. Habitual sleep variability, not sleep duration, is associated with caloric intake in adolescents. Sleep Med. 2015;16:856–861. PubMed ID: 26002758 doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2015.03.004

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    He F, Bixler EO, Liao J, et al. Habitual sleep variability, mediated by nutrition intake, is associated with abdominal obesity in adolescents. Sleep Med. 2015;16:1489–1494. PubMed ID: 26611945 doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2015.07.028

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Kjeldsen JS, Horth MF, Andersen R, et al. Short sleep duration and large variability in sleep duration are independently associated with dietary risk factors for obesity in Danish school children. Int J Obes. 2014;38:32–39. doi:10.1038/ijo.2013.147

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Baron KG, Reid KJ, Kern AS, Zee PC. Role of sleep timing in caloric intake and BMI. Obesity. 2011;19(7):1374–1381. doi:10.1038/oby.2011.100

  • 26.

    Fleig D, Randler C. Association between chronotype and diet in adolescents based on food logs. Eat Behav. 2009;10(2):115–118. PubMed ID: 19447353 doi:10.1016/j.eatbeh.2009.03.002

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Spaeth AM, Dinges DF, Goel N. Effects of experimental sleep restriction on weight gain, caloric intake, and meal timing in healthy adults. Sleep. 2013;36(7):981–990. PubMed ID: 23814334 doi:10.5665/sleep.2792

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Markwald RR, Melanson EL, Smith MR, et al. Impact of insufficient sleep on total daily energy expenditure, food intake, and weight gain. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A. 2013;110:5695–5700. doi:10.1073/pnas.1216951110

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 74 74 32
Full Text Views 270 270 1
PDF Downloads 99 99 0