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Background: To evaluate a multicomponent health promotion program targeting preschoolers’ physical activity (PA). Methods: PA of children from 23 German daycare facilities (DFs; 13 intervention DFs, 10 control DFs) was measured via accelerometry at baseline and after 12 months. Children’s sedentary time, light PA, and moderate to vigorous PA were estimated. Adherence was tracked with paper-and-pencil calendars. Mixed-model regression analyses were used to assess intervention effects. Results: PA data were analyzed from 183 (4.2 [0.8] y, 48.1% boys) children. At follow-up, children in DF groups with more than 50% adherence to PA intervention components showed an increase of 9 minutes of moderate to vigorous PA per day (β = 9.28; 95% confidence interval [CI], −0.16 to 18.72) and a 19-minute decrease in sedentary time (β = −19.25; 95% CI, −43.66 to 5.16) compared with the control group, whereas children’s PA of those who were exposed to no or less than 50% adherence remained unchanged (moderate to vigorous PA: β = 0.34; 95% CI, −13.73 to 14.41; sedentary time: β = 1.78; 95% CI, −26.54 to 30.09). Notable effects were found in children with migration background. Conclusions: Only small benefits in PA outcomes were observed after 1 year. A minimum of 50% adherence to the intervention seems to be crucial for facilitating intervention effects.
B. Brandes, Buck, Wright, and M. Brandes are with the Leibniz Institute for Prevention Research and Epidemiology—BIPS, Bremen, Germany. B. Brandes is also with the Center for Clinical Psychology and Rehabilitation, University of Bremen, Bremen, Germany. Pischke is with the Institute of Medical Sociology, Centre for Health and Society, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf, Germany.