Sex-Specific Physical Activity Patterns Differentiate Weight Loss Maintainers From Regainers: The MedWeight Study

in Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $115.00

1 year subscription

USD  $153.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $218.00

2 year subscription

USD  $285.00

Background: Although plenty of evidence indicates that weight loss maintainers are highly physically active, studies focusing on the sex-specific differences in activity levels between maintainers and regainers are scarce. The authors aimed to investigate sex-specific differences in activity patterns in a cohort of Mediterranean maintainers and regainers. Methods: Sample includes 756 participants of the MedWeight registry (60.5% women), aged 18–65 years, who lost ≥10% of their initial weight, and either maintained their loss for ≥12 months or regained it. Participants completed a series of questionnaires, including demographics and weight history. Activity levels were evaluated with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire-short version. Results: Maintainers of both sexes were, in total, more active than their same-sex regainers. When specific activities were considered, women maintainers spent more time walking than regainers (Padjusted = .02), whereas men maintainers spent more time in vigorous activities (Padjusted = .001) and walking than regainers (Padjusted = .001). Modest increments in activity of sex-relevant intensity were associated with increased odds for maintenance. Conclusions: Maintainers attained a more active lifestyle than their same-sex regainers, involving more walking for both sexes and more vigorous activities for men. The detected differences, according to activity intensity, support that activity patterns associated with successful weight loss are distinguishable between sexes.

Poulimeneas, Maraki, Karfopoulou, Anastasiou, and Yannakoulia are with the Department of Nutrition and Dietetics, Harokopio University of Athens, Athens, Kallithea, Greece. Maraki also is with the Section of Sport Medicine and Biology of Exercise, School of Physical Education and Sport Science, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Zografou, Athens, Greece. Koutras and Chrysostomou are with the School of Sciences, European University of Cyprus, Nicosia. Cyprus. Kavouras is with the Hydration Science Lab, Arizona State University, Phoenix, AZ, USA.

Yannakoulia (myiannak@hua.gr) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Jensen MD, Ryan DH, Apovian CM, et al. 2013 AHA/ACC/TOS guideline for the management of overweight and obesity in adults: a report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association task force on practice guidelines and the obesity society. J Am Coll Cardiol. 2014;63(25, pt B):2985–3023. PubMed ID: 24239920 doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2013.11.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Donnelly JE, Blair SN, Jakicic JM, Manore MM, Rankin JW, Smith BK. American College of Sports Medicine Position Stand: appropriate physical activity intervention strategies for weight loss and prevention of weight regain for adults. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2009;41(2):459–471. PubMed ID: 19127177 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181949333

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Befort CA, Stewart EE, Smith BK, Gibson CA, Sullivan DK, Donnelly JE. Weight maintenance, behaviors and barriers among previous participants of a university-based weight control program. Int J Obes. 2008;32(3):519–526. doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803769

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Kruger J, Blanck HM, Gillespie C. Dietary and physical activity behaviors among adults successful at weight loss maintenance. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2006;3:17. PubMed ID: 16854220 doi:10.1186/1479-5868-3-17

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    McGuire MT, Wing RR, Klem ML, Hill JO. Behavioral strategies of individuals who have maintained long-term weight losses. Obes Res. 1999;7(4):334–341. PubMed ID: 10440589 doi:10.1002/j.1550-8528.1999.tb00416.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Cox TL, Malpede CZ, Desmond RA, et al. Physical activity patterns during weight maintenance following a low-energy density dietary intervention. Obesity. 2007;15(5):1226–1232. doi:10.1038/oby.2007.144

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Phelan S, Wyatt HR, Hill JO, Wing RR. Are the eating and exercise habits of successful weight losers changing? Obesity. 2006;14(4):710–716. doi:10.1038/oby.2006.81

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Ostendorf DM, Lyden K, Pan Z, et al. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary behavior in successful weight loss maintainers. Obesity. 2018;26(1):53–60. doi:10.1002/oby.22052

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Unick JL, Gaussoin SA, Hill JO, et al. Objectively assessed physical activity and weight loss maintenance among individuals enrolled in a lifestyle intervention. Obesity. 2017;25(11):1903–1909. doi:10.1002/oby.21971

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Catenacci VA, Ogden LG, Stuht J, et al. Physical activity patterns in the National Weight Control Registry. Obesity. 2008;16(1):153–161. doi:10.1038/oby.2007.6

  • 11.

    Soini S, Mustajoki P, Eriksson JG. Lifestyle-related factors associated with successful weight loss. Ann Med. 2015;47(2):88–93. PubMed ID: 25751374 doi:10.3109/07853890.2015.1004358

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Santos I, Vieira PN, Silva MN, Sardinha LB, Teixeira PJ. Weight control behaviors of highly successful weight loss maintainers: the Portuguese Weight Control Registry. J Behav Med. 2017;40(2):366–371. PubMed ID: 27586133 doi:10.1007/s10865-016-9786-y

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Catenacci VA, Odgen L, Phelan S, et al. Dietary habits and weight maintenance success in high versus low exercisers in the National Weight Control Registry. J Phys Act Health. 2014;11(8):1540–1548. PubMed ID: 24385447 doi:10.1123/jpah.2012-0250

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Karfopoulou EA, Anastasiou CA, Hill JO, Yannakoulia M. The MedWeight study: design and preliminary results. Med J Nutrition Metab. 2014;7:201–210. doi:10.3233/MNM-140022

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Papathanasiou G, Georgoudis G, Papandreou M, et al. Reliability measures of the short International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) in Greek young adults. Hellenic J Cardiol. 2009;50(4):283–294. PubMed ID: 19622498

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ) Group. Guidelines for data processing and analysis of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ)—Short and long forms. 2005. http://www.ipaq.ki.se. Accessed 16/10/2018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    McIntosh T, Hunter DJ, Royce S. Barriers to physical activity in obese adults: a rapid evidence assessment. J Res Nurs. 2016;21(4):271–287. doi:10.1177/1744987116647762

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Polidori D, Sanghvi A, Seeley RJ, Hall KD. How strongly does appetite counter weight loss? Quantification of the feedback control of human energy intake. Obesity. 2016;24(11):2289–2295. doi:10.1002/oby.21653

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Anastasiou CA, Karfopoulou E, Yannakoulia M. Weight regaining: from statistics and behaviors to physiology and metabolism. Metabolism. 2015;64(11):1395–1407. PubMed ID: 26362728 doi:10.1016/j.metabol.2015.08.006

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Mielgo-Ayuso J, Aparicio-Ugarriza R, Castillo A, et al. Physical activity patterns of the Spanish population are mostly determined by sex and age: findings in the ANIBES study. PLoS One. 2016;11(2):e0149969. PubMed ID: 26914609 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0149969

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Craft BB, Carroll HA, Lustyk MK. Gender differences in exercise habits and quality of life reports: assessing the moderating effects of reasons for exercise. Int J Lib Arts Soc Sci. 2014;2(5):65–76. PubMed ID: 27668243

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Zervou F, Stavrou NAM, Koehn S, Zounhia K, Psychountaki M. Motives for exercise participation: the role of individual and psychological characteristics. Cogent Psychol. 2017;4(1):1345141. doi:10.1080/23311908.2017.1345141

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Robertson C, Avenell A, Stewart F, et al. Clinical effectiveness of weight loss and weight maintenance interventions for men: a systematic review of men-only randomized controlled trials (The ROMEO Project). Am J Mens Health. 2017;11(4):1096–1123. PubMed ID: 26130729 doi:10.1177/1557988315587550

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Asztalos M, Wijndaele K, De Bourdeaudhuij I, et al. Sport participation and stress among women and men. Psychol Sport Exerc. 2012;13(4):466–483. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.01.003

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Jakicic JM, Marcus BH, Gallagher KI, Napolitano M, Lang W. Effect of exercise duration and intensity on weight loss in overweight, sedentary women: a randomized trial. JAMA. 2003;290(10):1323–1330. PubMed ID: 12966123 doi:10.1001/jama.290.10.1323

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Jakicic JM, Marcus BH, Lang W, Janney C. Effect of exercise on 24-month weight loss maintenance in overweight women. Arch Intern Med. 2008;168(14):1550–1559. PubMed ID: 18663167 doi:10.1001/archinte.168.14.1550

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Karfopoulou E, Brikou D, Mamalaki E, et al. Dietary patterns in weight loss maintenance: results from the MedWeight study. Eur J Nutr. 2017;56(3):991–1002. PubMed ID: 26744302 doi:10.1007/s00394-015-1147-z

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Lee PH, Macfarlane DJ, Lam TH, Stewart SM. Validity of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire Short Form (IPAQ-SF): a systematic review. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011;8:115. PubMed ID: 22018588 doi:10.1186/1479-5868-8-115

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Swift DL, McGee JE, Earnest CP, Carlisle E, Nygard M, Johannsen NM. The effects of exercise and physical activity on weight loss and maintenance. Prog Cardiovasc Dis. 2018;61(2):206–213. PubMed ID: 30003901 doi:10.1016/j.pcad.2018.07.014

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    van Poppel MN, Chinapaw MJ, Mokkink LB, van Mechelen W, Terwee CB. Physical activity questionnaires for adults: a systematic review of measurement properties. Sports Med. 2010;40(7):565–600. PubMed ID: 20545381 doi:10.2165/11531930-000000000-00000

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 182 182 43
PDF Downloads 64 64 20