Are BMI, Self-Perceptions, Motor Competence, Engagement, and Fitness Related to Physical Activity in Physical Education Lessons?

in Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $117.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $156.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $222.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $296.00

Background: Higher levels of actual and perceived motor competence are purported to lead to participation in physical activity (PA). Whereas considerable work has been published regarding motor and perceived competence and body mass index (BMI), much less is known about the association of these variables considering PA and engagement in physical education settings—the focus of the present study. Method: In 600 children (aged 3–10 y), PA during physical education lessons, locomotor skills, object control skills, perceived competence, and BMI (study 1) were assessed. In a subsample of 149 children, PA, engagement, and health-related fitness were assessed (study 2). Results: Structural equation model showed that in study 1, locomotor skills were the strongest variable in the early years, and object control skills were the strongest later, in explained PA. The regression analysis, in study 2, showed that BMI, object control skills, and engagement were significantly associated with PA and that appropriate motor engagement was the best predictor of PA. Conclusion: The authors extended previous research by providing evidence that motor competence varies across childhood in explaining participation in PA, and appropriate motor engagement plays a critical role in being active during lessons and was the strongest predictor of PA. BMI and self-perception were not significant in the models.

Valentini and de Souza are with the Department of Physical Education, School of Physical Education, Physiotherapy and Dance, Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Sul, Porto Alegre, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil. Nobre is with the Department of Physical Education and Sports, Federal Institute of Education, Science and Technology, Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Duncan is with the Department of Biomolecular and Sports Sciences, Coventry University, Coventry, United Kingdom.

Valentini (nadiacv@esef.ufrgs.br) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Braithwaite I, Stewart AW, Hancox RJ, et al. Body mass index and vigorous physical activity in children and adolescents: an international cross-sectional study. Acta Paediatr. 2017;106(8):13231330. PubMed ID: 28471494 doi:10.1111/apa.13903

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Cairney J, Dudley D, Kwan M, Bulten R, Kriellaars D. Physical literacy, physical activity and health: toward an evidence-informed conceptual model. Sports Med. 2019;49(3):371383. doi:10.1007/s40279-019-01063-3

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Stodden DF, Goodway JD, Langendorfer SJ, et al. A developmental perspective on the role of motor skill competence in physical activity: an emergent relationship. Quest. 2008;60(2):290306. doi:10.1080/00336297.2008.10483582

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Barnett LM, Morgan PJ, van Beurden E, Beard JR. Perceived sports competence mediates the relationship between childhood motor skill proficiency and adolescent physical activity and fitness: a longitudinal assessment. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2008;5(1):40. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-5-40

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Aadland KN, Moe VF, Aadland E, Anderssen SA, Resaland GK, Ommundsen Y. Relationships between physical activity, sedentary time, aerobic fitness, motor skills and executive function and academic performance in children. Ment Health Phys Act. 2017;12:1018. doi:10.1016/j.mhpa.2017.01.001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Barnett LM, Morgan PJ, Van Beurden E, Ball K, Lubans DR. A reverse pathway? Actual and perceived skill proficiency and physical activity. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(5):898904. PubMed ID: 20962694 doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181fdfadd

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Khodaverdi Z, Goodway JD, Stodden DF. Associations between physical activity and health-related fitness: differences across childhood. 2017;35(6):169176. doi:10.15314/tsed.315806

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Duncan MJ, Bryant E, Stodden D. Low fundamental movement skill proficiency is associated with high BMI and body fatness in girls but not boys aged 6-11 years old fatness in girls but not boys aged 6-11 years old. J Sports Sci. 2016;25(31):21352141. doi:10.1080/02640414.2016.1258483

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Robinson LE, Stodden DF, Barnett LM, et al. Motor competence and its effect on positive developmental trajectories of health. Sports Med. 2015;45(9):12731284. doi:10.1007/s40279-015-0351-6

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    De Meester A, Stodden D, Brian A, et al. Associations among elementary school children‘s actual motor competence, perceived motor competence, physical activity and BMI : a cross-sectional study. PLoS One. 2016;11(10):e0164600. PubMed ID: 27736964 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0164600

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Utesch T, Dreiskämper D, Naul R, Geukes K. Understanding physical (in-) activity, overweight, and obesity in childhood: effects of congruence between physical self-concept and motor competence. Sci Rep. 2018;8(1):5908. PubMed ID: 29651046 doi:10.1038/s41598-018-24139-y

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Noordstar JJ, van der Net J, Jak S, Helders PJM, Jongmans MJ. The change in perceived motor competence and motor task values during elementary school: a longitudinal cohort study. Br J Dev Psychol. 2016;34(3):427446. PubMed ID: 26989988 doi:10.1111/bjdp.12142

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Khodaverdi Z, Bahram A, Stodden D, Kazemnejad A. The relationship between actual motor competence and physical activity in children: mediating roles of perceived motor competence and health-related physical fitness. J Sports Sci. 2016;34(16):15231529. doi:10.1080/02640414.2015.1122202

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Loprinzi PD, Cardinal BJ, Loprinzi KL, Lee H. Benefits and environmental determinants of physical activity in children and adolescents. Obes Facts. 2012;5(4):597610. PubMed ID: 22986648 doi:10.1159/000342684

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Shapiro DR, Martin JJ. The relationships among sport self-perceptions and social well-being in athletes with physical disabilities. Disabil Health J. 2014;7(1):4248. PubMed ID: 24411506 doi:10.1016/j.dhjo.2013.06.002

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Lubans DR, Morgan PJ, Weaver K, et al. Rationale and study protocol for the supporting children’s outcomes using rewards, exercise and skills (SCORES) group randomized controlled trial: a physical activity and fundamental movement skills intervention for primary schools in low-income communities. BMC Publ Health. 2012;12(1):427. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-427

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Masten AS. Resilience in developing systems: progress and promise as the fourth wave rises. Dev Psychopathol. 2007;19(3):921930. PubMed ID: 17705908 doi:10.1017/S0954579407000442

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Harter S. Development process in the construction of the self. In: Yawkey TD, Johnson JE, eds. Integrative Processes and Socialization: Early to Middle ChildhoodNew Jersey: Psychology Press; 1988:278.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Harter S. The Construction of the Self: Developmental and Sociocultural Foundations. 2nd ed. New York City, NY: Guilford Press; 2012.

  • 20.

    Bronfenbrenner U. The bioecological theory of human development. In: Bronfenbrenner U, ed. Making Human Beings Human: Bioecological Perspectives on Human Development. London, UK: Sage Publications; 2005:315

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Gibson EJ. Perceiving the Affordances: A Portrait of Two Psychologists. London, UK: Psychology Press; 2002.

  • 22.

    Valentini NC, Pierosan L, Rudisill ME, Hastie PA. Mastery and exercise play interventions: motor skill development and verbal recall of children with and without disabilities. Phys Educ Sport Pedagogy. 2017;22(4):349363. doi:10.1080/17408989.2016.1241223

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Hastie PA, Rudisill ME, Wadsworth DD. Providing students with voice and choice: lessons from intervention research on autonomy-supportive climates in physical education. Sport Educ Soc. 2013;18(1):3856. doi:10.1080/13573322.2012.701203

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    McWilliam RA, Bailey DB. Effects of classroom social structure and disability on engagement. Topics Early Child Spec Educ. 1995;15(2):123147. doi:10.1177/027112149501500201

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Silverman S, Dodds P, Placek J, Shute S, Rife F. Academic learning time in elementary school physical education (ALT-PE) for student subgroups and instructional activity units. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1984;55(4):365370. doi:10.1080/02701367.1984.10608416

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Siedentop D. Sport Education: Quality PE Through Positive Sport Experiences. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics Books; 1994.

  • 27.

    Voss C, Harris KC. Physical activity evaluation in children with congenital heart disease. Heart. 2017;103(18):14081412. PubMed ID: 28490620 doi:10.1136/heartjnl-2017-311340

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Tudor-Locke C, Craig CL, Brown WJ, Clemes SA, De Cocker K, Giles-Corti B, et al. How many steps/day are enough for adults?. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2011;8(1):79. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-8-79

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). BMI percentile calculator for child and teen. 2008. https://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/bmi/calculator.html

    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Ulrich DA. Test of Gross Motor Development: Examiner’s Manual. 2nd ed. Austin, TX: Pro-ed; 2000. doi:10.1017/CBO9781107415324.004

  • 31.

    Valentini NC. Validity and reliability of the TGMD-2 for Brazilian children. J Mot Behav. 2012;44(4):275280. PubMed ID: 22857518 doi:10.1080/00222895.2012.700967

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Harter S, Pike R. The pictorial scale of perceived competence and social acceptance for young children. Child Dev. 1984;55(6):19691982. doi:10.2307/1129772

  • 33.

    Harter S. The perceived competence scale for children. Child Dev. 1982;53:8797. doi:10.2307/1129640

  • 34.

    Valentini NC, Villwock G, Vieira LF, Luiz JLL, Levi M, Barbosa L. Brazilian validity of the harter’ self-perception profile for children. Psicol Reflex Crít. 2010;23(3):411419. PubMed ID: 32027012 doi:10.1590/S0102-79722010000300001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Valentini NC, Bandeira PF, Rudisill ME. Validity and reliability of the pictorial scale of perceived competence and social acceptance for Brazilian children. Br J Phy Edu Sports. 2020;34(2):402409.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Siedentop D, Tousignant M, Parker M. Academic Learning Time—Physical Education: Coding Manual. Columbus, OH: Ohio State University, College of Education, School of Health, Physical Education and Recreation; 1982.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Bruininks RH, Bruininks BD. Bruininks-Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency. 2nd ed. Minneapolis, MN: Pearson; 2005.

  • 38.

    Hu L, Bentler PM. Cutoff criteria for fit indexes in covariance structure analysis: conventional criteria versus new alternatives. Struct Equ Model Multidiscip J. 1999;6(1):155. doi:10.1080/10705519909540118

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Hair JF, Black WC, Babin BJ, Anderson RE. Multivariate Data Analysis. 7th ed. New York City, NY: Pearson Education; 2010.

  • 40.

    Spessato BC, Gabbard C, Valentini NC. The role of motor competence and body mass index in children’s activity levels in physical education classes. J Teach Phys Educ. 2013;32(1):118130. doi:10.1123/jtpe.32.2.118

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Barnett LM, van Beurden E, Morgan PJ, Brooks LO, Zask A, Beard JR. Six year follow-up of students who participated in a school-based physical activity intervention: a longitudinal cohort study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2009;6(1):48. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-6-48

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Barnett LM, van Beurden E, Morgan PJ, Brooks LO, Beard JR. Childhood motor skill proficiency as a predictor of adolescent physical activity. J Adolesc Health. 2009;44(3):252259. doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2008.07.004

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Sektnan M, McClelland MM, Acock A, Morrison FJ. Relations between early family risk, children’s behavioral regulation, and academic achievement. Early Child Res Q. 2010;25(4):464479. PubMed ID: 20953343 doi:10.1016/j.ecresq.2010.02.005

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Almqvist L, Uys C, Sandberg A. The concepts of participation, engagement and flow: a matter of creating optimal play experiences. S Afr J Occup Ther. 2007;37:813.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 496 497 40
Full Text Views 22 22 1
PDF Downloads 10 10 0