Academic Achievement and Physical Activity: The Ideal Relationship to Promote a Healthier Lifestyle in Adolescents

in Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $117.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $156.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $222.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $296.00

Background: School environment provides several intervention opportunities for physical activity. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between objectively assessed moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and academic achievement in adolescents. Methods: Cross-sectional data were collected from 301 students aged between 13 and 15 years (46.51% boys), enrolled at 7 secondary schools in the city of Huesca (Spain). Participants wore accelerometers during a 7-day period, and their academic achievement was calculated from the average marks of all subjects. Structural equation modeling and quadratic regression analysis were performed to test both linear and nonlinear explanatory models. One-way analysis of variance was also performed to explore the effect of gender and the percentage of compliance with MVPA recommendations. Results: MVPA on weekdays and higher levels of body mass index were negatively associated with academic achievement. According to the curvilinear relationship, those students whose MVPA levels were closer to the daily recommendation were more likely to obtain higher academic achievement. However, a significant association was only shown in the case of boys. Conclusions: Adolescents who satisfy the international recommendations tend to obtain better academic achievement. Therefore, MVPA for adolescents should be prescribed within some beneficial time margins (50–70 min/d).

Estrada-Tenorio is with the CAPAS-Cité (Centre for the Promotion of Physical Activity and Health), University of Zaragoza, Huesca, Spain. Julián and Martín-Albo are with the Faculty of Social Sciences and Human Studies, University of Zaragoza, Teruel, Spain. Aibar and Zaragoza are with the Faculty of Social Sciences and Education, University of Zaragoza, Huesca, Spain.

Estrada-Tenorio (estradaten@unizar.es) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Tremblay MS, Carson V, Chaput JP, et al. Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines for children and youth: an integration of physical, sedentary behaviour, and sleep. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016;41(6)(suppl 3):S311S327. PubMed ID: 27306437 doi:10.1139/apnm-2016-0151

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Rasberry CN, Tiu GF, Kann L, et al. Health-related behaviors and academic achievement among high school students—United States, 2015. MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep. 2017;66(35):921927. PubMed ID: 28880853 doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6635a1

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Watson A, Timperio A, Brown H, Best K, Hesketh KD. Effect of classroom-based physical activity interventions on academic and physical activity outcomes: a systematic review and meta-analysis. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017;14(1):114. PubMed ID: 28841890 doi:10.1186/s12966-017-0569-9

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Sevil J, García-González L, Abós A, Generelo E, Aibar A. Can high school be an effective setting to promote healthy lifestyles? Effects of a multiple behaviour change intervention in adolescents. J Adolesc Health. 2019;64(4):478486. PubMed ID: 30471871 doi:10.106/j.jadohealth.2018.09.027

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Hattie J, Anderman EM, eds. International Guide to Student Achievement. New York, NY: Routledge; 2013.

  • 6.

    Domazet SL, Tarp J, Huang T, et al. Associations of physical activity, sports participation and active commuting on mathematic performance and inhibitory control in adolescents. PLoS One. 2016;11(1):e0146319. PubMed ID: 26727211 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0146319

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Li JW, O’Connor H, O’Dwyer N, Orr R. The effect of acute and chronic exercise on cognitive function and academic performance in adolescents: a systematic review. J Sci Med Sport. 2017;20(9):841848. PubMed ID: 28185806 doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2016.11.025

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Cohen AK, Rai M, Rehkopf DH, Abrams B. Educational attainment and obesity: a systematic review. Obes Rev. 2013;14(12):9891005. PubMed ID: 23889851 doi:10.1111/obr.12062

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Faught EL, Gleddie D, Storey KE, Davison CM, Veugelers PJ. Healthy lifestyle behaviours are positively and independently associated with academic achievement: an analysis of self-reported data from a nationally representative sample of Canadian early adolescents. PLoS One. 2017;12(7):e0181938. PubMed ID: 28753617 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0181938

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Kristjánsson AL, Sigfúsdóttir ID, Allegrante JP. Health behaviour and academic achievement among adolescents: the relative contribution of dietary habits, physical activity, body mass index and self-esteem. Health Educ Behav. 2010;37(1):5164. doi:10.1177/1090198107313481

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development. PISA 2015. Results in focus. 2015. https://www.oecd.org/pisa/pisa-2015-results-in-focus.pdf. Accessed April 2, 2019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Pellicer-Chenoll M, García-Massó X, Morales J, et al. Physical activity, physical fitness and academic achievement in adolescents: a self-organizing maps approach. Health Educ Res. 2015;30(3):436448. PubMed ID: 25953972 doi:10.1093/her/cyv016

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Esteban-Cornejo I, Tejero-González CM, Martínez-Gómez D, et al. Objectively measured physical activity has a negative but weak association with academic performance in children and adolescents. Acta Paediatr. 2014;103(11):e501e506. PubMed ID: 25048792 doi:10.1111/apa.12757

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Kwak L, Kremers SPJ, Bergman P, Ruiz PJ, Rizzo NS, Sjöström M. Associations between physical activity, fitness, and academic achievement. J Pediatr. 2009;155(6):914918. PubMed ID: 19643438 doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2009.06.019

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Van Dijk ML, De Groot RH, Savelberg HH, Van Acker F, Kirschner PA. The association between objectively measured physical activity and academic achievement in Dutch adolescents: findings from the GOALS study. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 2014;36(5):460473. PubMed ID: 25356610 doi:10.1123/jsep.2014-0014

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Ardoy DN, Fernández-Rodríguez JM, Jiménez-Pavón D, Castillo R, Ruiz JR, Ortega FB. A physical education trial improves adolescents’ cognitive performance and academic achievement: the EDUFIT study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2014;24(1):e52e61. PubMed ID: 23826633 doi:10.1111/sms.12093

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Ericsson I, Karlsson MK. Motor skills and school performance in children with daily physical education in school—a 9-year intervention study. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2014;24(2):273278. PubMed ID: 22487170 doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2012.01458.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Ericsson I, Cederberg M. Physical activity and school performance: a survey among students not qualified for upper secondary school. Phys Educ Sport Pedagogy. 2013;20(1):4566. doi:10.1080/17408989.2013.788146

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Kantomaa MT, Stamatakis E, Kankaanpää A, Kajantie E, Taanila A, Tammelin T. Associations of physical activity and sedentary behavior with adolescent academic achievement. J Res Adolesc. 2016;26(3):432442. PubMed ID: 27610027 doi:10.1111/jora.12203

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Marques A, Santos D, Hillman CH, Sardinha LB. How does academic achievement relate to cardiorespiratory fitness, self-reported physical activity and objectively reported physical activity: a systematic review in children and adolescents aged 6-18 years. Br J Sports Med. 2018;52(16):1039. PubMed ID: 29032365 doi:10.1136/bjsports-2016-097361

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Syväoja HJ, Kankaanpää A, Kallio J, et al. The relation of physical activity, sedentary behaviors and academic achievement is mediated by fitness and bedtime. J Phys Act Health. 2018;15(2):135143. doi:10.1123/jpah.2017-0135

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    World Health Organization. Global Recommendations on Physical Activity for Health. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2010. https://www.who.int/dietphysicalactivity/global-PA-recs-2010.pdf. Accessed July 152018.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Cooper AR, Goodman A, Page AS, et al. Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in youth: the International Children’s Accelerometry Database (ICAD). Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2015;12:113. PubMed ID: 26377803 doi:10.1186/s12966-015-0274-5

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Aaltonen S, Latvala A, Rose RJ, Kujala UM, Kaprio J, Silveitoinen K. Leisure-time physical activity and academic performance: cross-lagged associations from adolescence to young adulthood. Sci Rep. 2016;6:39215. PubMed ID: 27976699 doi:10.1038/srep39215

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Oliveira T, Pizarro A, Costa M, et al. Cardiorespiratory fitness but not physical activity, is associated with academic achievement in children and adolescents. Ann Hum Biol. 2017;44(4):309315. PubMed ID: 28301950 doi:10.1080/03014460.2017.1308010

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Evenson KR, Catellier DJ, Gill K, Ondrak KS, McMurray RG. Calibration of two objective measures of physical activity for children. J Sports Sci. 2008;26(14):15571565. PubMed ID: 18949660 doi:10.1080/02640410802334196

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Trost SG, McIver KL, Pate RR. Conducting accelerometer-based activity assessments in field-based research. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2005;37(11)(suppl):S531S543. PubMed ID: 16294116 doi:10.1249/01.mss.0000185657.86065.98

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Mattocks C, Ness A, Leary S, et al. Use of accelerometers in a large field-based study of children: protocols, design issues, and effects on precision. J Phys Act Health. 2008;5(suppl 1):S98S111. doi:10.1123/jpah.5.s1.s98

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Calahorro F, Torres-Luque G, López-Fernández I, Santos-Lozano A, Garatachea N, Álvarez E. Physical activity and accelerometer: methodological training, recommendations and movement patterns in school. Nutr Hosp. 2014;31(1):115128. doi:10.3305/nh.2015.31.1.7450

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Boyce W, Torsheim T, Currie C, Zambon A. The family affluence scale as a measure of national wealth: validation of an adolescent self-report measure. Soc Indic Res. 2006;78:473487. doi:10.1007/s11205-005-1607-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Kuczmarski RJ, Ogden CL, Guo SS, et al. 2000 CDC growth charts for the United States: methods and development. Vital Health Stat 11. 2002;246:1190.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Preacher KJ, Hayes AF. Asymptotic and resampling strategies for assessing and comparing indirect effects in multiple mediator models. Behav Res Methods. 2008;40(3):879891. PubMed ID: 18697684 doi:10.3758/BRM.40.3.879

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Busch V, Laninga-Wijnen L, Schrijvers AJP, De Leeuw JRJ. Associations of health behaviors, school performance and psychosocial problems in adolescents in the Netherlands. Health Promot Int. 2017;32(2):280291. PubMed ID: 26094252 doi:10.1093/heapro/dav058

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Corder K, Atkin AJ, Bamber DJ, et al. Revising on the run or studying on the sofa: prospective associations between physical activity, sedentary behaviour, and exam results in British adolescents. Int J Behav Nutr Phys. 2015;12:106. doi:10.1186/s12966-015-0269-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Morales J, Pellicer-Chenoll M, García-Massó X, Gomis M, González LM. Relation between physical activity and academic performance in 3rd-year secondary education students. Percept Mot Skills. 2011;113(2):539546. PubMed ID: 22185068 doi:10.2466/06.11.13.PMS.113.5.539-546

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    García D, Jimmefors A, Mousavi F, Adrianson L, Rosenberg P, Archer T. Self-regulatory mode (locomotion and assessment), well-being (subjective and psychological), and exercise behavior (frequency and intensity) in relation to high school pupils’ academic achievement. Peer J. 2015;3:e847. doi:10.7717/peerj.847

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    So W. Association between physical activity and academic performance in Korean adolescent students. BMC Public Health. 2012;12(1):258. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-12-258

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Rombaldi AJ, Clark VL, Reichert FF, et al. Incidence of school failure according to baseline leisure-time physical activity practice: prospective study. J Adolesc Health. 2012;51(6)(suppl):S22S26. PubMed ID: 23283155 doi:10.1016/j.jadohealth.2012.06.024

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Shin Y, So W. Association between physical inactivity and academic record in Korean adolescents. Iran J Public Health. 2012;41(10):3642. PubMed ID: 23308350

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    World Economic Forum. The Global Gender Gap Report. Geneva, Switzerland: Author; 2018. http://www3.weforum.org/docs/WEF_GGGR_2018.pdf. Accessed April 5, 2019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 525 525 31
PDF Downloads 249 249 22