Self-Efficacy, Social-Support, and Physical Activity Measures Among Hospital Employees: A Multisite Cross-Sectional Study

in Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $117.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $156.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $222.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $296.00

Introduction: Associations across self-efficacy, social support, and multiple measures of physical activity (PA) have not been thoroughly explored in hospital employees. Methods: Validated surveys assessed psychosocial factors; the IPAQ-long assessed PA, and mixed-effects analyses examined relations between psychosocial variables and PA in 920 employees from 6 Texas hospitals. Results: At P <.05, self-efficacy was significantly associated with light (β = 1.67), moderate (β = 1.63), and vigorous (β = 2.78) leisure PA; with domestic PA (β = 1.64); and with moderate commute PA (β = 0.03). At P < .05, family social-support was significantly associated with light (β = 0.94), moderate (β = 0.63), and vigorous (β = .74) leisure PA; with moderate (β = 0.46) and vigorous (β = 1.24) occupation PA; with light (β = 0.58) and moderate (β = 0.20) commute PA; and with domestic PA (β = 1.18). At P < .05, social support from friends was significantly associated with light (β = 0.74), moderate (β = 0.58), and vigorous (β = .91) leisure PA; with moderate commute (β = 0.21); and with domestic PA (β = 0.82). Conclusion: Interventions must emphasize self-efficacy–building strategies and the role of family support to meaningfully impact PA behaviors in uniquethis unique population.

John is with the University of Texas MD Anderson Cancer Center, Houston, TX, USA. Sharma and Swartz are with the University of Texas Health Science Center at Houston, Houston, TX, USA. Hoelscher is with the University of Texas School of Public Health, Austin Regional Campus, Austin, TX, USA. Huber is with the Biostatistics, Stata Corp LP, College Station, TX, USA.

John (jcjohn@mdanderson.org) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Paffenbarger R, Wing A, Hyde R. Physical activity as an index of heart attack risk in college alumni. Am J Epidemiol. 1978;108:161175. PubMed ID: 707484 doi:10.1093/oxfordjournals.aje.a112608

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. Physical activity guidelines for Americans. Health.gov. Updated 2008. Accessed July, 2016.

    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Pronk N, Martinson B, Kessler R, Beck A, Simon G, Wang P. The association between work performance and physical activity, cardiorespiratory fitness, and obesity. J Occup Environ Med. 2004;46(1):1925. PubMed ID: 14724474 doi:10.1097/01.jom.0000105910.69449.b7

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Kannel W, Sorlie P. Some health benefits of physical activity: the Framingham study. Arch Intern Med. 1979;139:857861. PubMed ID: 464698 doi:10.1001/archinte.1979.03630450011006

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Treiber F, Baranoswki T, Braden D, Strong W, Levy M, Knox W. Social support for exercise: relationship to physical activity in young adults. Prev Med. 1991;20:737750. PubMed ID: 1766945 doi:10.1016/0091-7435(91)90068-F

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Ohta M, Mizoue T, Mishima N, Ikeda M. Effect of the physical activities in leisure time and commuting to work on mental health. J Occup Health. 2017;49:4652. doi:10.1539/joh.49.46

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Corbin C, Pangrazi R. Surgeon general’s report on physical activity and health. PCPFS Res Digest. 1996;2(6):416.

  • 8.

    Folkins C, Sime W. Physical fitness training and mental health. Am Psychol. 1981;36(4):373389. PubMed ID: 7023304 doi:10.1037/0003-066X.36.4.373

  • 9.

    Paluska S, Schwenk T. Physical activity and mental health: current concepts. Sports Med. 2000;29(3):167180. PubMed ID: 10739267 doi:10.2165/00007256-200029030-00003

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevalence: National Center for Health Statistics. Health, United States. Participation in leisure-time aerobic and muscle-strengthening activities that meet the federal 2008 physical activity guidelines for Americans among adults aged 18 and over, by selected characteristics: United States, selected years 1998–2016. https://www.cdc.gov/nchs/data/hus/2017/057.pdf. Updated 2017.

    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Chaput JP, Klingenberg L, Rosenkilde M, Gilbert JA, Tremblay A, Sjödin A. Physical activity plays an important role in body weight regulation. J Obes. 2011;2011:111. doi:10.1155/2011/360257

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Bell J, Hamer M, van Hees V, Singh-Manoux A, Kivimäki M, Sabia S. Healthy obesity and objective physical activity. Am J Clin Nutr. 2015;102(2):268275. PubMed ID: 26156738 doi:10.3945/ajcn.115.110924

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Hill J, Wyatt H. Role of physical activity in treating and preventing obesity. J Appl Physiol. 2005;99(2):765770. PubMed ID: 16020440 doi:10.1152/japplphysiol.00137.2005

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Luckhaupt S, Cohen M, Li J, Calvert G. Prevalence of obesity among U.S. workers and associations with occupational factors. Am J Prev Med. 2014;46(3):237248. PubMed ID: 24512862 doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2013.11.002

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Jackson C, Wee C, Hurtado D, Kawachi I. Obesity trends by industry of employment in the United States, 2004 to 2011. BMC Obes. 2016;3:20. PubMed ID: 27047665 doi:10.1186/s40608-016-0100-x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Miller S, Alpert P, Cross C. Overweight and obesity in nurses, advanced practice nurses, and nurse educators. J Am Acad Nurse Pract. 2008;20(5):259265. PubMed ID: 18460166 doi:10.1111/j.1745-7599.2008.00319.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Sharma S, Upadhyaya M, Karhade M, et al. Are hospital workers healthy?: a study of cardiometabolic, behavioral, and psychosocial factors associated with obesity among hospital workers. J Occup Environ Med. 2016;58(12):12311238. PubMed ID: 27930484 doi:10.1097/JOM.0000000000000895

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Albert NM, Butler R, Sorrel J. Factors related to healthy diet and physical activity in hospital based clinical nurses. Online J Issues Nurs. 2014;19(3):5. PubMed ID: 26824153

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Malik S, Blake H, Batt M. How healthy are our nurses and registered nurses compared. Br J Nurs. 2011;20(8):489496. PubMed ID: 21537281 doi:10.12968/bjon.2011.20.8.489

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Vickers KS, Kircher KJ, Smith MD, Petersen LR, Rasmussen NH. Health behavior counseling in primary care: provider-reported rate and confidence. Fam Med. 2007;39(10):730735. PubMed ID: 17987416

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Oberg EB, Frank E. Physicians’ health practices strongly influence patient health practices. J R Coll Physicians Edinb. 2009;39(4):290291. PubMed ID: 21152462 doi:10.4997/JRCPE.2009.422

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Dishman R, Sallis J, Ovenstein D. The determinants of physical activity and exercise. Public Health Rep. 1985;100:158171. PubMed ID: 3920714

  • 23.

    Eyler A, Brownson R, Donatelle R, King A, Brown D, Sallis J. Physical activity, social support, and middle- and older-aged minority women: results from a U.S. survey. Soc Sci Med. 1999;49:781789. PubMed ID: 10459889 doi:10.1016/S0277-9536(99)00137-9

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Kim C, McEwen L, Kieffer E, Herman W, Piette J. Self- efficacy, social support, and associations with physical activity and body mass index among women with histories of gestational diabetes mellitus. Diabetes Educ. 2008;34(4):719728. PubMed ID: 18669814 doi:10.1177/0145721708321005

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Filomena-Scarapicchia T, Amireault S, Faulkner G, Sabiston C. Social support and physical activity participation among healthy adults: a systematic review of prospective studies. Int Rev Sport Exerc Psychol. 2017;10(1):5083. doi:10.1080/1750984X.2016.1183222

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Wallsten B, Alagna S, DeVellis B, Devellis R. Social support and physical health. Health Psychol. 1983;2:367391. doi:10.1037/0278-6133.2.4.367

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Sallis J, Grossman R, Pinski RB, Patterson T, Nader P. The development of scales to measure social support for diet and exercise behaviors. Prev Med. 1987;16:825836. PubMed ID: 3432232 doi:10.1016/0091-7435(87)90022-3

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Poag K, McAuley E. Goal setting, self-efficacy and exercise behavior. J Sport Exerc Psychol. 1992;14:352360. doi:10.1123/jsep.14.4.352

  • 29.

    Pajares F. Overview of social cognitive theory and of self-efficacy. http://www.emory.edu/education/mfp/eff.html. Published 2002. Accessed July, 2017.

    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Ducharme K, Brawley L. Predicting the intentions and behaviors of exercise initiates using two forms of self-efficacy. J Behav Med. 1995;18:479497. PubMed ID: 8847716 doi:10.1007/BF01904775

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Perkins J, Multhaup K, Perkins H, Barton C. Self-efficacy and participation in physical and social activity among older adults in spain and the united states. Gerontologist. 2008;48(1):5158. PubMed ID: 18381832 doi:10.1093/geront/48.1.51

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    McAuley E. Self-efficacy and the maintenance of exercise participation in older adults. J Behav Med. 1993;16:103113. PubMed ID: 8433355 doi:10.1007/BF00844757

  • 33.

    Marcus B, Selby V, Niaura R, Rossi J. Self-efficacy and the stages of exercise behavior change. Res Q Exerc Sport. 1992;63:6066. PubMed ID: 1574662 doi:10.1080/02701367.1992.10607557

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Hartman J, ten-Hacken N, Boezen H, deGreef M. Self-efficacy for physical activity and insight into its benefits are modifiable factors associated with physical activity in people with COPD: a mixed-methods study. J Physiother. 2013;59(2):117124. PubMed ID: 23663797 doi:10.1016/S1836-9553(13)70164-4

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Bandura A. Self-Efficacy: The Exercise of Control. New York: Macmillan; 1997.

  • 36.

    Castro C, Sallis J, Hickmann S, Lee R, Chen A. A prospective study of psychosocial correlates of physical activity for ethnic minority women. Psychol Health. 1999;14:277293. doi:10.1080/08870449908407328

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    McAuley E, Szabo A, Gothe N, Olson E. Self-efficacy: implications for physical activity, function, and functional limitations in older adults. Am J Lifestyle Med. 2011;5(4):361369. doi:10.1177/1559827610392704

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Secginli S. Mammography self-efficacy scale and breast cancer fear scale: psychometric testing of the turkish versions. Cancer Nurs. 2012;35(5):365373. PubMed ID: 21946901 doi:10.1097/NCC.0b013e3182331a9a

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Blake H, Stanulewicz N, Mcgill F. Predictors of physical activity and barriers to exercise in nursing and medical students. J Adv Nurs. 2017;73(4):917929. PubMed ID: 27731886 doi:10.1111/jan.13181

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Coulston A, Boushey C. Nutrition in the Prevention and Treatment of Disease. 2nd ed. San Diego, CA: Academic Press; 2008.

  • 41.

    Walen H, Lachman M. Social support and strain from partner, family, and friends: costs and benefits for men and women in adulthood. J Soc Pers Relatsh. 2000;17(1):530. doi:10.1177/0265407500171001

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Mermelstein R, McIntyre K, Lichtenstein E. Partner support and relapse in smoking cessation programs. J Consult Clin Psychol. 1983;51:465466. PubMed ID: 6863711 doi:10.1037/0022-006X.51.3.465

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Hooper J, Veneziano L. Distinguishing starters from nonstarters in an employee physical activity incentive program. Health Educ Q. 1995;22:4960. PubMed ID: 7721601 doi:10.1177/109019819502200106

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Carron A, Hausenblaus H, Mack D. Social influence and exercise: a meta-analysis. J Sports Exerc Psychol. 1996;18:116. doi:10.1123/jsep.18.1.1

  • 45.

    International Physical Activity Questionnaire Group. Guidelines for data processing and analysis of the IPAQ– short and long forms. https://sites.google.com/site/theipaq/scoring-protocol. Accessed November, 2016.

    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Hosmer D, Lemeshow S, Sturdivant R, eds. Applied Logistic Regression. 3rd ed. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley; 2013.

  • 47.

    John J, Swartz MD, Hoelscher D, Huber C, Sharma SV. Measures of physical activity and body mass index in hospital workers. J Occup Environ Med. 2019;61(5):e176e182. doi:10.1097/JOM.0000000000001561

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Pate R, McIver K, Dowda M, Brown W, Addy C. Directly observed physical activity levels in preschool children. J Sch Health. 2008;78(8):438444. PubMed ID: 18651931 doi:10.1111/j.1746-1561.2008.00327.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 49.

    Sallis J, Zakarian J, Hovell M, Hofstetter C. Ethnic, socioeconomic, and sex differences in physical activity among adolescents. J Clin Epidemiol. 1996;49(2):125134. PubMed ID: 8606313 doi:10.1016/0895-4356(95)00514-5

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 50.

    Nader P, Bradley R, Houts R, McRitchie S, O’Brien M. Moderate to vigorous PA from ages 9 to 15 years. JAMA. 2008;300(3):295305. PubMed ID: 18632544 doi:10.1001/jama.300.3.295

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 51.

    Spence J, Blanchard C, Clark M, Plotnikoff R, Storey K, McCargar L. The role of self-efficacy in explaining gender differences in physical activity among adolescents: a multilevel analysis. J Phys Act Health. 2010;7(2):176183. PubMed ID: 20484756 doi:10.1123/jpah.7.2.176

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 52.

    Beville J, Meyer M, Usdan S, Turner L, Jackson J, Lian B. Gender differences in college leisure time physical activity: application of the theory of planned behavior and integrated behavioral model. J Am Coll Health. 2014;62(3):173184. PubMed ID: 24328906 doi:10.1080/07448481.2013.872648

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 53.

    Cardon G, Philippaerts R, Lefevre J, et al. Physical activity levels in 10 to 11-year-olds: clustering of psychosocial correlates. Public Health Nutr. 2005;8(7):896903. PubMed ID: 16277806 doi:10.1079/PHN2005738

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 54.

    Bandura A. Self-efficacy. In: Ramachaudran V, ed. Encyclopedia of Human Behavior. Vol 4. New York, NY: Academic Press; 1994:7181.

  • 55.

    McAuley E, Lox C, Duncan T. Long-term maintenance of exercise, self-efficacy and physiological change in older adults. J Gerontol. 1993;48(4):P218P224. doi:10.1093/geronj/48.4.P218

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 56.

    Pampel F, Krueger P, Denney J. Socioeconomic disparities in health behaviors. Annu Rev Sociol. 2010;36:349370. PubMed ID: 21909182 doi:10.1146/annurev.soc.012809.102529

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 57.

    Groot W, Maassen van den Brink H. What does education do to our health? In: Desjardins R, Schuller T, eds. Measuring the Effects of Education on Health and Civic Engagement. CopenhagenOECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development); 2006:355363.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 58.

    Grossman M, Kaestner R. Effects of education on health. In: Behrman JR, Stacey N, eds. The Social Benefits of Education. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press; 1997:69123.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 59.

    Wilson D, Kirtland K, Ainsworth B, Addy C. Socioeconomic status and perceptions of access and safety for physical activity. Ann Behav Med. 2004;28(1):2028. PubMed ID: 15249256 doi:10.1207/s15324796abm2801_4

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 60.

    Estabrooks P, Lee R, Gyurcsik N. Resources for physical activity participation: does availability and accessibility differ by neighborhood socioeconomic status? Ann Behav Med. 2003;25(2):100104. PubMed ID: 12704011 doi:10.1207/S15324796ABM2502_05

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 61.

    Conway T, Cronan T. Smoking, exercise, and physical fitness. Prev Med. 1992;21(6):723734. PubMed ID: 1438118 doi:10.1016/0091-7435(92)90079-W

  • 62.

    Moslemi-Haghighi F, Rezaei I, Ghaffarinejad F, Lari R, Pouya F. Comparison of physical fitness among smoker and non-smoker men. Addict Health. 2011;3(1–2):1519. PubMed ID: 24494112

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 63.

    Martin-Diener E, Meyer J, Braun J, et al. The combined effect on survival of four main behavioral risk factors for non-communicable diseases. Prev Med. 2014;65:148152. PubMed ID: 24989976 doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2014.05.023

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 64.

    Perkins K, Rohay J, Meilahn E, Wing R, Matthews K, Kuller L. Diet, alcohol and physical activity as a function of smoking status in middle aged women. Health Psychol. 1993;12:410415. PubMed ID: 8223366 doi:10.1037/0278-6133.12.5.410

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 65.

    Boyle R, O’Connor P, Pronk N, Tan A. Health behaviors of smokers, ex-smokers, and never smokers in an HMO. Prev Med. 2000;31(2):177182. doi:10.1006/pmed.2000.0699

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 66.

    Jaehne A, Unbehaun T, Feige B, Lutz U, Batra A, Riemann D. How smoking affects sleep: a polysomnographic analysis. Sleep Med. 2012;13(10):12861292. PubMed ID: 23026505 doi:10.1016/j.sleep.2012.06.026

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 67.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevalence (CDC): National Center for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion. Hospital employees’ health. https://www.cdc.gov/features/hospital-employees-health/index.html. Updated 2018.

    • Export Citation
  • 68.

    Marshall AL. Challenges and opportunities for promoting physical activity in the workplace. J Sci Med Sport. 2004;7(1):6066 . doi:10.1016/S1440-2440(04)80279-2

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 69.

    Garrett G, Benden M, Mehta R, Pickens A, Peres SC, Zhao H. Call center productivity over 6 months following a standing desk intervention. IIE Trans Occup Ergon Hum Factors. 2016;4(2–3):188195. doi:10.1080/21577323.2016.1183534

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 70.

    Bramante CT, King MM, Story M, Whitt-Glover MC, Barr-Anderson DJ. Worksite physical activity breaks: perspectives on feasibility of implementation. Work. 2018;59(4):491499. PubMed ID: 29733047 doi:10.3233/WOR-182704

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 71.

    Kling H, Yang X, Messiah S, Arheart K, Brannan D, Caban-Martinez A. Opportunities for increasing physical activity in the workplace: the walking meeting (WAM) pilot study, Miami, 2015. Prev Chronic Dis. 2016;13:E83. PubMed ID: 27337560 doi:10.5888/pcd13.160111

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 72.

    Adams R, Blieszner R. Aging well with friends and family. Am Behav Sci. 1995;39:209224. doi:10.1177/0002764295039002008

  • 73.

    Reinhardt J. Effects of positive and negative support received and provided on adaptation to chronic visual impairment. Appl Dev Sci. 2001;5:7685. doi:10.1207/S1532480XADS0502_3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 74.

    Siebert D, Mutran E, Reitzes DC. Friendship and social support: the importance of role identity to aging adults. Soc Work. 1999;44:522533. PubMed ID: 10568025 doi:10.1093/sw/44.6.522

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 75.

    Segrin C. Age moderates the relationship between social support and psychosocial problems. Hum Commun Res. 2003;29(3):317342. doi:10.1111/j.1468-2958.2003.tb00842.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 76.

    Gupta V, Korte C. The effects of a confidant and a peer group on the well-being of single elders. Int J Aging Hum Dev. 1994;39:293302. PubMed ID: 7737741 doi:10.2190/4YYH-9XAU-WQF9-APVT

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 77.

    Shanas E. The family as a social support system in old age. Gerontologist. 1979;19(2):169174. PubMed ID: 263596 doi:10.1093/geront/19.2.169

  • 78.

    Lynch S. Who supports whom? How age and gender affect perceived quality of support from family and friends. Gerontologist. 1998;38:231238. PubMed ID: 9573668 doi:10.1093/geront/38.2.231

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 79.

    McLeroy K, Wendel M. Behavioral Theory in Health Promotion Practice and Research. Burlington, MA: Jones & Bartlett; 2012.

  • 80.

    Saffer H. Racial, ethnic, and gender differences in physical activity. J Hum Cap. 2013;7(4):378410. PubMed ID: 25632311 doi:10.1086/671200

All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 0 0 0
Full Text Views 293 293 25
PDF Downloads 142 142 8