Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $117.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $156.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $222.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $296.00

Background: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of 2 water-based aerobic training programs on functional capacity and quality of life (QoL) of older women. Design: Randomized clinical trial. Methods: A total of 41 women (64.3 [3.1] y) were randomized into a continuous (CTG) and an interval (ITG) water-based aerobic training group. Training programs were performed with exercise intensity based on rating of perceived exertion throughout 12 weeks (twice a week). Functional tests with and without dual-task and QoL questionnaire were applied pretraining and posttraining. Per protocol and intention to treat analysis were conducted using generalized estimating equations, with Bonferroni post hoc test (α = .05). Results: The per protocol analysis showed an increase in the 30-second chair stand (6% [12%] vs 18% [13%]), 6-minute walk (4% [7%] vs 2% [8%]), and 5-m habitual gait velocity (6% [11%] vs 4% [7%]) tests after CTG and ITG training groups. In addition, the intention to treat analysis revealed an increase in the 30-second chair stand test (7% [13%] vs 12% [13%]) and physical domain of QoL (8% [26%] vs 14% [22%]) after CTG and ITG training groups, as well as an increase in the gait velocity with verbal task after CTG (6% [11%]). Conclusions: Both water-based aerobic training programs induced similar improvements in the functional capacity and maintained the QoL perception in older women.

The authors are with the Department of Sports, Physical Education School, Federal University of Pelotas (UFPel), Pelotas, Rio Grande do Sul, Brazil.

Andrade (andradelu94@gmail.com) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Fleg JL, Morrell CH, Bos AG, et al. Accelerated longitudinal decline of aerobic capacity in healthy older adults. Circulation. 2005;112(5):674682. PubMed ID: 16043637 doi:10.1161/CIRCULATIONAHA.105.545459

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Aagaard P, Suetta C, Caserotti P, Magnusson SP, Kjaer M. Role of the nervous system in sarcopenia and muscle atrophy with aging: strength training as a countermeasure. Scand J Med Sci Sports. 2010;20(1):4964. PubMed ID: 20487503 doi:10.1111/j.1600-0838.2009.01084.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Brustio PR, Magistro D, Liubicich ME. Changes in temporal parameters during performance of the Step Test in older adults. Gait Posture. 2015;41(1):217221. PubMed ID: 25455210 doi:10.1016/j.gaitpost.2014.10.006

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Park HL, O’Connell JE, Thomson RG. A systematic review of cognitive decline in the general elderly population. Int J Geriatr Psychiatry. 2003;18(12):11211134. PubMed ID: 14677145 doi:10.1002/gps.1023

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Chodzko-Zajko WJ, Proctor DN, Fiatarone Singh MA, et al. Exercise and physical activity for older adults. Med Sci Sport Exerc. 2009;41(7):15101530. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181a0c95c

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Talarska D, Tobis S, Kotkowiak M, Strugała M, Stanisławska J, Wieczorowska-Tobis K. Determinants of quality of life and the need for support for the elderly with good physical and mental functioning. Med Sci Monit. 2018;24:16041613. PubMed ID: 29551764 doi:10.12659/MSM.907032

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Alberton CL, Tartaruga MP, Pinto SS, et al. Vertical ground reaction force during water exercises performed at different intensities. Int J Sports Med. 2013;34(10):881887. PubMed ID: 23549690 doi:10.1055/s-0032-1331757

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Alberton CL, Pinto SS, Antunes AH, et al. Maximal and ventilatory thresholds cardiorespiratory responses to three water aerobic exercises compared with treadmill on land. J Strength Cond Res. 2014;28(6):16791687. PubMed ID: 24172723 doi:10.1519/JSC.0000000000000304

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Guerreiro JPF, Claro RFT, Rodrigues JD, Freire BFA. Effect of watergym in knee osteoarthritis. Acta Ortopédica Bras. 2014;22(1):2528. PubMed ID: 32253859 doi:10.1590/S1413-78522014000100004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Arca EA, Martinelli B, Martin LC, Waisberg CB, Franco RJ. Aquatic exercise is as effective as dry land training to blood pressure reduction in postmenopausal hypertensive women. Physiother Res Int. 2014;19(2):9398. PubMed ID: 24022919 doi:10.1002/pri.1565

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Kovách MV, Kopkáné Plachy J, Bognár J, Olvasztóné Balogh ZBarthalos I. Effects of Pilates and aqua fitness training on older adults’ physical functioning and quality of life. Biomed Hum Kinet. 2013;5(1):2227. doi:10.2478/bhk-2013-0005

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    McNamara RJ, McKeough ZJ, McKenzie DK, Alison JA. Acceptability of the aquatic environment for exercise training by people with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease with physical comorbidities: additional results from a randomised controlled trial. Physiotherapy. 2015;101(2):187192. PubMed ID: 25544594 doi:10.1016/j.physio.2014.09.002

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Bento PCB, Pereira G, Ugrinowitsch C, Rodacki ALF. The effects of a water-based exercise program on strength and functionality of older adults. J Aging Phys Act. 2012;20(4):469483. PubMed ID: 22714953 doi:10.1123/japa.20.4.469

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Sanders ME, Takeshima N, Rogers ME, Colado JC, Borreani S. Impact of the s.w.e.a.T.™ water-exercise method on activities of daily living for older women. J Sports Sci Med. 2013;12(4):707715. PubMed ID: 24421730

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Kim SB, O’sullivan DM. Effects of aqua aerobic therapy exercise for older adults on muscular strength, agility and balance to prevent falling during gait. J Phys Ther Sci. 2013;25(8):923927. PubMed ID: 24259886 doi:10.1589/jpts.25.923

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Bocalini DS, Serra AJ, Rica RL, Dos Santos L. Repercussions of training and detraining by water-based exercise on functional fitness and quality of life: a short-term follow-up in healthy older women. Clinics. 2010;65(12):13051309. PubMed ID: 21340219 doi:10.1590/S1807-59322010001200013

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Martínez PYO, Hall Lopez JA, Paredones Hernández A, Martin Dantas EH. Effect of periodized water exercise training program on functional autonomy in elderly women. Nutr Hosp. 2014;31(1):351356. doi:10.3305/nh.2015.31.1.7857

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Bergamin M, Ermolao A, Tolomio S, Berton L, Sergi G, Zaccaria M. Water- versus land-based exercise in elderly subjects: effects on physical performance and body composition. Clin Interv Aging. 2013;8:11091117. PubMed ID: 24009416 doi:10.2147/CIA.S44198

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Bocalini DS, Serra AJ, Murad N, Levy RF. Water- versus land-based exercise effects on physical fitness in older women. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2008;8(4):265271. PubMed ID: 19149838 doi:10.1111/j.1447-0594.2008.00485.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Katsura Y, Yoshikawa T, Ueda S-Y, et al. Effects of aquatic exercise training using water-resistance equipment in elderly. Eur J Appl Physiol. 2010;108(5):957964. PubMed ID: 19960351 doi:10.1007/s00421-009-1306-0

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Reichert T, Kanitz AC, Delevatti RS, Bagatini NC, Barroso BM, Kruel LFM. Continuous and interval training programs using deep water running improves functional fitness and blood pressure in the older adults. Age. 2016;38(1):20. doi:10.1007/s11357-016-9882-5

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Rica RL, Carneiro RMM, Serra AJ, Rodriguez D, Pontes Junior FLBocalini DS. Effects of water-based exercise in obese older women: impact of short-term follow-up study on anthropometric, functional fitness and quality of life parameters. Geriatr Gerontol Int. 2013;13(1):209214. PubMed ID: 22694304 doi:10.1111/j.1447-0594.2012.00889.x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Silva MR, Alberton CL, Portella EG, Nunes GN, Martin DG, Pinto SS. Water-based aerobic and combined training in elderly women: effects on functional capacity and quality of life. Exp Gerontol. 2018;106:5460. PubMed ID: 29476803 doi:10.1016/j.exger.2018.02.018

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Tsourlou T, Benik A, Dipla K, Zafeiridis A, Kellis S. The effects of a twenty-four-week aquatic training program on muscular strength performance in healthy elderly women. J Strength Cond Res. 2006;20(4):811818. PubMed ID: 17194242 doi:10.1519/R-18455.1

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Bento PCB, Lopes Mde A, Cebolla EC, Wolf R, Rodacki FAL. Effects of water-based training on static and dynamic balance of older women. Rejuvenation Res. 2015;18(4):326331. PubMed ID: 25708712 doi:10.1089/rej.2014.1650

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Fedor A, Garcia S, Gunstad J. The effects of a brief, water-based exercise intervention on cognitive function in older adults. Arch Clin Neuropsychol. 2015;30(2):139147. PubMed ID: 25638041 doi:10.1093/arclin/acv001

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Kang D, Bressel E, Kim D. Effects of aquatic exercise on insulin-like growth factor-1, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, and cognitive function in elderly women. Exp Gerontol. 2020;132:110842. PubMed ID: 31954186 doi:10.1016/j.exger.2020.110842

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Yogev-Seligmann G, Hausdorff JM, Giladi N. The role of executive function and attention in gait. Mov Disord. 2008;23(3):329342. PubMed ID: 18058946 doi:10.1002/mds.21720

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Costa RR, Kanitz AC, Reichert T, et al. Water-based aerobic training improves strength parameters and cardiorespiratory outcomes in elderly women. Exp Gerontol. 2018;108:231239. PubMed ID: 29730330 doi:10.1016/j.exger.2018.04.022

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Alexander R, Goldspink G. Mechanics and Energetics of Animal Locomotion. London, UK: Chapman & Hall; 1977.

  • 31.

    Pasetti SR, Gonçalves A, Padovani CR. Continuous training versus interval training in deep water running: health effects for obese women. Rev Andaluza Med del Deport. 2012;5(1):37. doi:10.1016/S1888-7546(12)70002-3

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Schulz KF, Altman DG, Moher D. CONSORT 2010 statement: updated guidelines for reporting parallel group randomised trials. BMJ. 2010;340:c332. PubMed ID: 20332509 doi:10.1136/bmj.c332

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Andrade LS, Pinto SS, Silva MR, et al. Water-based continuous and interval training in older women: cardiorespiratory and neuromuscular outcomes (WATER study). Exp Gerontol. 2020;134:110914. PubMed ID: 32145293 doi:10.1016/j.exger.2020.110914

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Alberton CL, Pinto SS, Gorski T, et al. Rating of perceived exertion in maximal incremental tests during head-out water-based aerobic exercises. J Sports Sci. 2016;34(18):16911698. PubMed ID: 26759939 doi:10.1080/02640414.2015.1134804

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 35.

    Melo MDO, Pompeo KD, Brodt GA, Baroni BM, da Silva Junior DP, Vaz MA. Effects of neuromuscular electrical stimulation and low-level laser therapy on the muscle architecture and functional capacity in elderly patients with knee osteoarthritis: a randomized controlled trial. Clin Rehabil. 2015;29(6):570580. doi:10.1177/0269215514552082

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 36.

    Jackson AS, Pollock ML, Ward A. Generalized equations for predicting body density of women. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1980;12(3):175181. PubMed ID: 7402053 doi:10.1249/00005768-198023000-00009

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Siri WE. Body composition from fluid spaces and density: analysis of methods. Nutrition. 1993;9(5):480491. PubMed ID: 8286893

  • 38.

    Rikli RE, Jones CJ. Development and validation of a functional fitness test for community-residing older adults. J Aging Phys Act. 1999;7(2):129161. doi:10.1123/japa.7.2.129

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Cadore EL, Casas-Herrero A, Zambom-Ferraresi F, et al. Multicomponent exercises including muscle power training enhance muscle mass, power output, and functional outcomes in institutionalized frail nonagenarians. Age. 2014;36(2):773785. doi:10.1007/s11357-013-9586-z

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    The WHOQOL Group. Development of the World Health Organization WHOQOL-BREF quality of life assessment. Psychol Med. 1998;28(3):551558. doi:10.1017/S0033291798006667

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Chachamovich E, Trentini C, Fleck MP. Assessment of the psychometric performance of the WHOQOL-BREF instrument in a sample of Brazilian older adults. Int Psychogeriatrics. 2007;19(4):635646. doi:10.1017/S1041610206003619

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Bohannon RW. Reference values for the timed up and go test. J Geriatr Phys Ther. 2006;29(2):6468. PubMed ID: 16914068 doi:10.1519/00139143-200608000-00004

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 43.

    Ayán C, Carvalho P, Varela S, Cancela JM. Effects of water-based exercise training on the cognitive function and quality of life of healthy adult women. J Phys Act Health. 2017;14(11):899904. doi:10.1123/jpah.2017-0036

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Millán-Calenti JC, Tubío J, Pita-Fernández S, et al. Prevalence of functional disability in activities of daily living (ADL), instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) and associated factors, as predictors of morbidity and mortality. Arch Gerontol Geriatr. 2010;50(3):306310. doi:10.1016/j.archger.2009.04.017

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Silva PAB, Soares SM, Santos JFG, Silva LB. Cut-off point for WHOQOL-bref as a measure of quality of life of older adults. Rev Saude Publica. 2014;48(3):390397. PubMed ID: 25119934 doi:10.1590/S0034-8910.2014048004912

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 46.

    Delevatti RS, Schuch FB, Kanitz AC, et al. Quality of life and sleep quality are similarly improved after aquatic or dry-land aerobic training in patients with type 2 diabetes: a randomized clinical trial. J Sci Med Sport. 2018;21(5):483488. doi:10.1016/j.jsams.2017.08.024

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Schuch FB, Pinto SS, Bagatini NC, et al. Water-based exercise and quality of life in women: the role of depressive symptoms. Women Health. 2014;54(2):161175. PubMed ID: 24329155 doi:10.1080/03630242.2013.870634

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 48.

    Schuch FB, Schoenell MCW, Tiggemann CL, Noll M, Alberton CL, Kruel LFM. The effects of water-based strength exercise on quality of life in young women. Sport Sci Health. 2016;12(1):105112. doi:10.1007/s11332-016-0261-5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 214 214 55
Full Text Views 10 10 2
PDF Downloads 8 8 1