The Independent and Combined Effects of Aerobic Physical Activity and Muscular Strengthening Activity on All-Cause Mortality: An Analysis of Effect Modification by Race-Ethnicity

in Journal of Physical Activity and Health
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Background: The effects of aerobic physical activity (PA) and muscular strengthening activity (MSA) on all-cause mortality risk need further exploration among ethnically diverse populations. Purpose: To examine potential effect modification of race-ethnicity on meeting the PA guidelines and on all-cause mortality. Methods: The study sample (N = 14,384) included adults (20–79 y of age) from the 1999–2006 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey. PA was categorized into 6 categories based on the 2018 PA guidelines: category 1 (inactive), category 2 (insufficient PA and no MSA), category 3 (active and no MSA), category 4 (no PA and sufficient MSA), category 5 (insufficient PA and sufficient MSA), and category 6 (meeting both recommendations). Race-ethnic groups examined included non-Hispanic white, non-Hispanic black, and Mexican American. Cox-proportional hazard models were used. Results: Significant risk reductions were found for categories 2, 3, and 6 for non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black. Among Mexican American, significant risk reductions were found in category 6. Conclusion: In support of the 2018 PA guidelines, meeting both the aerobic PA and MSA guidelines significantly reduced risk for all-cause mortality independent of race-ethnicity. The effects of aerobic PA alone seem to be isolated to non-Hispanic white and non-Hispanic black.

Boyer, Miller, and Gillum are with the Department of Kinesiology, California Baptist University, Riverside, CA, USA. Churilla is with the Department of Clinical and Applied Movement Sciences, University of North Florida, Jacksonville, FL, USA. Penny is with the Department of Public Health Science, California Baptist University, Riverside, CA, USA.

Boyer (wboyer@calbaptist.edu) is corresponding author.

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