A Randomized Study on the Effects of Minds in Motion and Yoga on Motor Proficiency and Academic Skills Among Elementary School Children

in Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $119.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $159.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $227.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $302.00

Background: Physical activity is critical for the healthy development and well-being of children. Specifically, physical activity is associated with improvements in coordination, balance, attention, and behavior among elementary school-aged children. However, for many children, particularly those belonging to minority groups, opportunities to engage in quality physical activity programs outside school settings are limited. The purpose of this study was to examine the whether a physical activity program called Minds in Motion (MiM) The Maze before school, as compared with yoga, meets the criteria of the Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program framework as a before-school program to improve overall physical activity and academic performance among elementary school-age students. Methods: A total of 48 children attending an urban public school with large minority representation in the Midwest were randomly assigned to MiM-The Maze or yoga. Participants were assessed on motor proficiency, behavior, balance, and academic skills before and after training. Training consisted of either yoga or MiM-The Maze 30 minutes per day before school, 5 times per week for 12 weeks. Results: MiM-The Maze and yoga group students showed significant improvements in academic skills. Conclusions: MiM-The Maze is feasible and affordable before-school program to promote students’ classroom behavior in elementary school students.

Terson de Paleville is with the Department of Health and Sport Sciences, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA. Immekus is with the Department of Educational Leadership, Evaluation and Organizational Development, University of Louisville, Louisville, KY, USA.

Terson de Paleville (Dtdepa01@louisville.edu) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Henderson M, Benedetti A, Barnett T, Mathieu M, Deladoëy J, Gray-Donald K. Influence of adiposity, physical activity, fitness, and screen time on insulin dynamics over 2 years in children. JAMA Pediatr. 2016;170(3):227235. PubMed ID: 26857733 doi:10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.3909

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Zaqout M, Michels N, Bammann K, et al. Influence of physical fitness on cardio-metabolic risk factors in European children. The IDEFICS study. Int J Obes. 2016;40(7):11191125. doi:10.1038/ijo.2016.22

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Tomporowski P. Exercise and cognition. Pediatric Exerc Sci 2016;28(1):2327. doi:10.1123/pes.2016-0008

  • 4.

    Tarkka IM, Hautasaari P, Pesonen H, et al. Long-term physical activity may modify brain structure and function: studies in young healthy twins. J Phys Act Health. 2019;16(8):637643. doi:10.1123/jpah.2018-0416

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Immekus J, Muntis F, Terson de Paleville D. Predictor selection using lasso to examine the association of motor proficiency, postural control, visual efficiency, and behavior with the academic skills of elementary school-aged children. Mot Learn Dev. 2020;8(1):126144. doi:10.1123/jmld.2018-0023

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    US Department of Health and Human Services. Active children and adolescents. In: Brown Rodgers A (ed.) Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. 2nd ed. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2018:4654.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Jones S, Moore L, Moore K, et al. Disparities in physical activity resource availability in six US regions. Prev Med. 2015;78:1722. PubMed ID: 26067479 doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2015.05.028

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Wijtzes A, Jansen W, Bouthoorn S, et al. Social inequalities in young children’s sports participation and outdoor play. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2014;11(1):155. PubMed ID: 25510552doi:10.1186/s12966-014-0155-3

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    US Department of Health and Human Services. Physical Activity Guidelines for Americans. Washington, DC: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2008.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. A Guide for Developing Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2013.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Increasing Physical Education and Physical Activity: A Framework for Schools. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: A Guide for Schools. Atlanta, GA: US Department of Health and Human Services; 2015.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Wiecha J, Hall G, Gannett E, Roth B. National after school association standards for healthy eating and physical activity. 2011. https://www.niost.org/About/hepa-standards. Accessed May 1, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    SHAPE America. Comprehensive school physical activity programs: helping all students log 60 minutes of physical activity each day [position statement]. 2015. https://www.shapeamerica.org/advocacy/positionstatements/pa/upload/Comprehensive-School-Physical-Activity-Programs-Helping-All-Students-Log-60-Minutes-of-Physical-Activity-Eeach-Day.pdf. Accessed May 10, 2020.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Algozzine K, Christian C, Marr M, McClanahan T, White R. Demography of problem behavior in elementary schools. Exceptionality. 2008;16(2):93104. doi:10.1080/09362830801981369

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Finn J, Pannozzo G, Voelki K. Disruptive and inattentive-withdrawn behavior and achievement among fourth graders. Elem Sch J. 1995;95(5):421434. doi:10.1086/461853

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Kukla-Acevedo S. Leavers, movers, and stayers: the role of workplace conditions in teacher mobility decisions. J Educ Res. 2009;102(6);443452. doi:10.3200/JOER.102.6.443-452

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Jarraya S, Wagner M, Jarraya M, Engel F. 12 weeks of kindergarten-based yoga practice increases visual attention, visual-motor precision and decreases behavior of inattention and hyperactivity in 5-year-old children. Front Psychol. 2019;10:796. PubMed ID: 31024412 doi:10.3389/fpsyg.2019.00796

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Accardo A. Yoga as a school-wide positive behavior support. Child Educ. 2017;93(2):109113. doi:10.1080/00094056.2017.1300488

  • 20.

    Barranco-Ruiz Y, Etxabe B, Ramírez-Vélez R, Villa-González E. Interventions based on mind-body therapies for the improvement of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder symptoms in youth: a systematic review. Medicina. 2019;55(7):325. doi:10.3390/medicina55070325

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Das M, Deepeshwar S, Subramanya P, Manjunath N. Influence of yoga-based personality development program on psychomotor performance and self-efficacy in school children. Front Pediatr. 2016;4:62.

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Farahani P, Hekmatpou D, Khonsari A, Gholami M. Effectiveness of super brain yoga for children with hyperactivity disorder. Perspect Psychiatr Care. 2019;55(2):140146. PubMed ID: 29427513 doi:10.1111/ppc.12266

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Folleto J, Pereira K, Valentini N. The effects of yoga practice in school physical education on children’s motor abilities and social behavior. Int J Yoga. 2016;9(2):156162. PubMed ID: 27512323 doi:10.4103/0973-6131.183717

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Bazzano A, Anderson C, Hylton C, Gustat J. Effect of mindfulness and yoga on quality of life for elementary school students and teachers: results of a randomized controlled school-based study. Psychol Res Behav Manag. 2018;11:8189. doi:10.2147/PRBM.S157503

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Berger D, Silver E, Stein R. Effects of yoga on inner-city children’s well-being: a pilot study. Altern Ther Health Med. 2019;15(5):3642.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Perfect MS, Smith B. Hypnotic relaxation and yoga to improve sleep and school functioning. Int J School Educ Psychol. 2016;4(1):4351. doi:10.1080/21683603.2016.1130558

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Telles S, Hanumanthaiah B, Nagarathna R, Nagendra H. Improvement in static motor performance following yogic training of school children. Percept Mot Skills. 1993;76(3. pt 2):12641266. PubMed ID: 8337075 doi:10.2466/pms.1993.76.3c.1264

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Sethi JK, Nagendra HR, Sham Ganpat T. Yoga improves attention and self-esteem in underprivileged girl students. J Educ Health Promot. 2013;2(1):55. PubMed ID: 24251291 doi:10.4103/2277-9531.119043

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Butzer B, Ebert M, Telles S, Khalsa SB. School-based yoga programs in the United States: a survey. Adv Mind Body Med. 2015;29(4):1826. PubMed ID: 26535474

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Khalsa SB, Butzer B. Yoga in school settings: a research review. Ann N Y Acad Sci. 2016;1373(1):4555. PubMed ID: 26919395

  • 31.

    Weaver LL, Darragh AR. Systematic review of yoga interventions for anxiety reduction among children and adolescents. Am J Occup Ther. 2015;69(6):6906180070. doi:10.5014/ajot.2015.020115

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 32.

    Meyer C, Martin M. The Mind Maze Handbook for Middle School and High School Students. Scottsburg, IN: Minds-in-Motion, Inc. Press; 2016.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 33.

    Vidoni C, Lorenz D, Terson de Paleville D. Incorporating a movement skill programme into a preschool daily schedule. Early Child Dev Care. 2013;184(8):12111222. doi:10.1080/03004430.2013.856895

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 34.

    Ary D, Jacobs LC, Sorensen C. Introduction to Research in Education. 8th ed. Belmont, CA: Wadsworth; 2010.

  • 35.

    Bruininks R, Bruininks B. Bruininks–Oseretsky Test of Motor Proficiency. Minneapolis, MN: NCS Pearson; 2005.

  • 36.

    Burns GL, Taylor TK, Rusby JC. Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory 2.3: Parent Version. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Department of Psychology; 2001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 37.

    Burns GL, Taylor TK, Rusby JC. Child and Adolescent Disruptive Behavior Inventory 2.3: Teacher Version. Pullman, WA: Washington State University, Department of Psychology; 2001.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 38.

    Burns G, Becker S, Servera M, Bernad M, García-Banda G. Sluggish cognitive tempo and attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) inattention in the home and school contexts: parent and teacher invariance and cross-setting validity. Psychol Assess. 2017;29(2):209220. PubMed ID: 27148788 doi:10.1037/pas0000325

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 39.

    Burns G, Alves de Moura M, Beauchaine T, McBurnett K. Bifactor latent structure of ADHD/ODD symptoms: predictions of dual-pathway/trait-impulsivity etiological models of ADHD. J Child Psychol Psychiatry. 2014;55(4):393401. PubMed ID: 24795957 doi:10.1111/jcpp.12165

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 40.

    Amor J. Cosmic Kids. Yoga for 8–12-year-olds: 11 ready-to-go kids yoga class plans. 2014. https://www.cosmickids.com/shop/yoga-class-plans-for-8-12-year-olds/.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 41.

    Justice L, Brems C, Ehlers K. Bridging body, and mind: considerations for trauma-informed yoga. Int J Yoga Therap. 2018;28(1):3950. PubMed ID: 29419338 doi:10.17761/2018-00017R2

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 42.

    Meyer C. Maze Handbook for Teachers and Parents. Louisville, KY: Minds-in-Motion, Inc. Press; 2005.

  • 43.

    Rasberry C, Lee S, Robin L, et al. The association between school-based physical activity, including physical education, and academic performance: a systematic review of the literature. Prev Med. 2011;52(1):510520.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 44.

    Pawlowski C, Andersen H, Troelsen J, Schipperijn J. Children’s physical activity behavior during school recess: a pilot study using GPS, accelerometer, participant observation, and go-along interview. PLoS One. 2016;11(2):e0148786. PubMed ID: 26859288 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0148786

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 45.

    Nanthakumar C. The benefits of yoga in children. J Integr Med. 2018;16(1):1419. PubMed ID: 29397087 doi:10.1016/j.joim.2017.12.008

  • 46.

    Spadola CE, Rottapel R, Khandpur N, et al. Enhancing yoga participation: a qualitative investigation of barriers and facilitators to yoga among predominantly racial/ethnic minority, low-income adults. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2017;29:97104. PubMed ID: 29122272 doi:10.1016/j.ctcp.2017.09.001

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 47.

    Combs MA, Thorn BE. Barriers and facilitators to yoga use in a population of individuals with self-reported chronic low back pain: a qualitative approach. Complement Ther Clin Pract. 2014;20(4):268275. PubMed ID: 25130139 doi:10.1016/j.ctcp.2014.07.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 1821 1356 104
Full Text Views 62 37 1
PDF Downloads 42 27 2