Small-Groups Versus Full-Class Exergaming on Urban Minority Adolescents’ Physical Activity, Enjoyment, and Self-Efficacy

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Background: The effects of school-based exergaming interventions on adolescents’ physical activity (PA) and psychosocial outcomes have been mixed. Researchers speculate this may be attributed to design issues. Therefore, this study examined differences in urban minority adolescents’ PA, enjoyment, and self-efficacy during small-groups and full-class exergaming. Methods: Forty-seven urban minority adolescents (83% black; X¯age=11.8+1.3y) completed two 15-minute exergaming sessions on the Xbox One Kinect Just Dance: (1) small groups (n = 3–4) and (2) full class (n = 23–24). Participants’ time in sedentary behavior, light PA, and moderate to vigorous PA and steps were retrieved from ActiGraph GT3X+ accelerometers with enjoyment and self-efficacy assessed using validated surveys. Results: Participants spent significantly more time in sedentary behavior (5.9 [5.2] min vs 3.5 [2.7] min, respectively: P < .001, d = 0.57) and less time in moderate-to-vigorous PA (2.1 [2.8] min vs 5.5 [2.2] min, respectively: P < .001, d = 0.85) during the full-class versus the small-groups session. Moreover, small-groups exergaming resulted in significantly higher steps than the full-class exergaming (504.2 [132.1] vs 387.8 [122.1], respectively: P = .01, d = 0.50) and significantly greater enjoyment (3.5 [1.1] vs 3.2 [1.0], respectively: P = .02, d = 0.37). There were no significant differences between sessions for time in light PA and self-efficacy. Conclusions: Small-groups exergaming appears ideal for promoting enjoyable PA at higher intensities and lower sedentary time in underserved minority adolescents.

The authors are with the Department of Kinesiology, University of Minnesota–Twin Cities, Minneapolis, MN, USA.

Gao (gaoz@umn.edu) is corresponding author.
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