Reexamining the Energy Cost of Sedentary Behaviors From the 2011 Adult Compendium

in Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $117.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $156.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $222.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $296.00

Background: This study reexamines the energy cost of lower intensity activities compared to the 2011 Adult Compendium of Physical Activities. Methods: Participants (n = 32, age = 35 [13.8] y, 16 females) wore a portable metabolic system (COSMED), during 5 different conditions: sitting quietly, watching TV, sitting while working, driving, and walking at 2.0 mph. The metabolic equivalent (MET) values (VO2 mL·kg−1·min−1/3.5 mL·kg−1·min−1) were calculated. Results: The mean (SD) MET value for driving (1.46 [0.24]) was significantly lower than the Adult Compendium value of 2.5 (P < .001). Driving and slow walking have similar Adult Compendium values, but driving METs were significantly lower than slow walking (P < .001). Driving was similar to sitting while working (1.32 [0.25] METs, P > .05) and yielded significantly higher MET values than quiet sitting (1.08 [0.23] METs, P < .001) and watching TV (1.12 [0.22] METs, P < .001), both of which were lower than their respective Adult Compendium MET values. Conclusion: Existing Adult Compendium METs are significantly higher than measured METs for driving, which more closely correspond to sedentary behaviors than slow walking. The TV and quiet sitting also differed from their Adult Compendium values, which should be updated to reflect these findings, given that researchers and practitioners rely on Adult Compendium MET values to estimate energy cost.

The authors are with the Department of Kinesiology and Public Health, California Polytechnic State University, San Luis Obispo, CA, USA.

Keadle (skeadle@calpoly.edu) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Herrmann SD, et al. 2011 Compendium of physical activities: a second update of codes and MET values. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2011;43(8):15751581. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e31821ece12

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Whitt MC, et al. Compendium of physical activities: an update of activity codes and MET intensities. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2000;32(suppl):S498S516. doi:10.1097/00005768-200009001-00009

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Ainsworth BE, Haskell WL, Leon AS, et al. Compendium of physical activities: classification of energy costs of human physical activities. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 1993;25(1):7180. doi:10.1249/00005768-199301000-00011

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Piercy KL, Troiano RP, Ballard RM, et al. The physical activity guidelines for Americans. JAMA. 2018;320(19):20202028. doi:10.1001/jama.2018.14854

  • 5.

    Matthews CE, Moore SC, George SM, Sampson J, Bowles HR. Improving self-reports of active and sedentary behaviors in large epidemiologic studies. Exerc Sport Sci Rev. 2012;40(3):118126. doi:10.1097/JES.0b013e31825b34a0

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Neilson HK, Robson PJ, Friedenreich CM, Csizmadi I. Estimating activity energy expenditure: how valid are physical activity questionnaires? Am J Clin Nutr. 2008;87(2):279291. doi:10.1093/ajcn/87.2.279

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Ekelund U, Tarp J, Steene-Johannessen J, et al. Dose-response associations between accelerometry measured physical activity and sedentary time and all cause mortality: systematic review and harmonised meta-analysis. BMJ. 2019;366:l4570. doi:10.1136/bmj.l4570

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Matthews CE, Keadle SK, Troiano RP, et al. Accelerometer-measured dose-response for physical activity, sedentary time, and mortality in US adults. Am J Clin Nutr. 2016;104(5):14241432. doi:10.3945/ajcn.116.135129

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Tremblay MS, Aubert S, Barnes JD, et al. Sedentary Behavior Research Network (SBRN)—terminology consensus project process and outcome. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2017;14(1):75. doi:10.1186/s12966-017-0525-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Mansoubi M, Pearson N, Clemes SA, et al. Energy expenditure during common sitting and standing tasks: examining the 1.5 MET definition of sedentary behaviour. BMC Public Health. 2015;15(1):516. doi:10.1186/s12889-015-1851-x

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Edholm OG, Fletcher JG, Widdowson EM, McCance RA. The energy expenditure and food intake of individual men. Br J Nutr. 1955;9(3):286300. doi:10.1079/BJN19550040

  • 12.

    Passmore R, Durnin JV. Human energy expenditure. Physiol Rev. 1955;35(4):801840. doi:10.1152/physrev.1955.35.4.801

  • 13.

    de Guzman M, Kalaw J, Tan R, et al. A study of the energy expenditure, dietary intake and pattern of daily activity among various occupational groups. Urban jeepney drivers. Philip J Nutr. 1974;27:182188.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Tudor-Locke C, Johnson WD, Katzmarzyk PT. Frequently reported activities by intensity for U.S. adults: the American Time Use Survey. Am J Prev Med. 2010;39(4):e13e20. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2010.05.017

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Greene DL, DeCicco J. Engineering-economic analyses of automotive fuel economy potential in the United States. Annu Rev Energ Env. 2000;25(1):477535. doi:10.1146/annurev.energy.25.1.477

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Guidetti L, Meucci M, Bolletta F, Emerenziani GP, Gallotta MC, Baldari C. Validity, reliability and minimum detectable change of COSMED K5 portable gas exchange system in breath-by-breath mode. PLoS One. 2018;13(12):e0209925. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0209925

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Armstrong T, Bull FC. Development of the World Health Organization Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ). J Public Health. 2006;14(2):6670. doi:10.1007/s10389-006-0024-x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    World Health Organization. Global Physical Activity Questionnaire (GPAQ) Analysis Guide. Geneva, Switzerland: World Health Organization; 2012.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Crouter SE, LaMunion SR, Hibbing PR, Kaplan AS, Bassett DR Jr. Accuracy of the Cosmed K5 portable calorimeter. PLoS One. 2019;14(12):e0226290. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0226290

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Kozey SL, Lyden K, Howe CA, Staudenmayer JW, Freedson PS. Accelerometer output and MET values of common physical activities. Med Sci Sports Exerc. 2010;42(9):17761784. doi:10.1249/MSS.0b013e3181d479f2

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Jette M, Sidney K, Blumchen G. Metabolic equivalents (Mets) in exercise testing, exercise prescription, and evaluation of functional-capacity. Clin Cardiol. 1990;13(8):555565. doi:10.1002/clc.4960130809

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    Kim W, Anorve V, Tefft BC. American Driving Survey: 2014–2017. Washington, DC: AAA Foundation for Traffic Safety; 2019.

  • 23.

    Newton RL Jr, Han H, Zderic T, Hamilton MT. The energy expenditure of sedentary behavior: a whole room calorimeter study. PLoS One. 2013;8(5):e63171. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0063171

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    Johnson MJ, Chahal T, Stinchcombe A, Mullen N, Weaver B, Bedard M. Physiological responses to simulated and on-road driving. Int J Psychophysiol. 2011;81(3):203208. doi:10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2011.06.012

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 486 486 83
Full Text Views 11 11 1
PDF Downloads 9 9 1