The 24-Hour Movement Guidelines and Body Composition Among Youth Receiving Special Education Services in the United States

in Journal of Physical Activity and Health
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year online subscription

USD  $119.00

1 year online subscription

USD  $159.00

Student 2 year online subscription

USD  $227.00

2 year online subscription

USD  $302.00

Background: The purposes of this study were to examine the proportions of youth receiving special education services in the United States who individually and jointly met physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration guidelines, and to examine the impact of meeting none, one, two, and three of the guidelines on overweight and obesity. Methods: This cross-sectional analysis utilized data from the 2016 to 2017 National Survey for Children’s Health data set on 3582 youth aged 10–17 years who received special education services. The frequency of the participants’ compliance with the 24-hour movement guidelines and body weight status (based on the age- and sex-specific percentile cutoffs) were estimated. Meeting guidelines was defined as: 9–11 hours/night (5–13 y) or 8–10 hours/night (14–17 y) of sleep, ≤120 minutes per day of screen time, and ≥60 minutes per day of moderate to vigorous physical activity. A multinomial logistic regression analysis was conducted to estimate the impact of meeting none, one, two, or three guidelines on body weight status, adjusted for potential confounders. Results: Overall, 8.1% of youth met all three guidelines, 42.0% met two guidelines, 38.0% met one guideline, and 11.9% did not meet any guideline. Meeting all three guidelines was associated with an approximately 50% decreased likelihood of overweight than meeting no guideline, or sleep or screen time guidelines independently. Conclusions: This study extends the 24-hour movement framework to children receiving special education services and should prompt the continued study of its utility for understanding health disparities experienced by this population.

Haegele and Zhu are with the Department of Human Movement Sciences, Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA, USA. Healy and Patterson are with the Department of Behavioral Health and Nutrition, University of Delaware, Newark, DE, USA.

Haegele (jhaegele@odu.edu) is corresponding author.
  • 1.

    Fatima Y, Doi SAR, Mamun A. Longitudinal impact of sleep on overweight and obesity in children and adolescents: a systematic review and bias-adjusted meta-analysis. Obes Rev. 2015;16(2):137149. PubMed ID: 25589359 doi:10.1111/obr.12245

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 2.

    Janssen I., LeBlanc AG. Systematic review of the health benefits of physical activity and fitness in school-aged children and youth. Int J Behav Nutr Phy. 2010;7(1):40. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-7-40

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 3.

    Rezende LFM, Rodrigues Lopes M, Rey-López JP, Matsudo VKR, Luiz O. Sedentary behavior and health outcomes: an overview of systematic reviews. PLoS One. 2014;9(8):e105620. PubMed ID: 25144686 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0105620

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 4.

    Carson V, Chaput JP, Janssen I, Tremblay MS. Health associations with meeting new 24-hour movement guidelines for Canadian children and youth. Prev Med. 2016;95:713. PubMed ID: 27923668 doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2016.12.005

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 5.

    Saunders TJ, Gray CE, Poitras VJ, et al. Combinations of physical activity, sedentary behavior and sleep: relationships with health indicators in school-aged children and youth. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016;41(6):S283S293. doi:10.1139/apnm-2015-0626

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 6.

    Tremblay MS, Carson V, Chaput JP, et al. Canadian 24-hour movement guidelines for children and youth: an integration of physical activity, sedentary behavior, and sleep. Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2016;41(6, suppl 3):S311S327. PubMed ID: 27306437 doi:10.1139/apnm-2016-0151

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 7.

    Chastin SFM, Palarea-Albaladejo J, Dontje ML, Skelton DA. Combined effects of time spent in physical activity, sedentary behaviors and sleep on obesity and cardio-metabolic health markers: a novel compositional data analysis approach. PLoS One. 2015;10(10):e0139984. PubMed ID: 26461112 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0139984

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 8.

    Roman-Vinas B, Chaput JP, Katzmarzyk PT, et al. Proportion of children meeting recommendations for 24-hour movement guidelines and associations with adiposity in a 12-country study. Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act. 2016;13:123. PubMed ID: 27887654 doi:doi:10.1186/s12966-016-0449-8

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 9.

    Zhu X, Haegele JA, Healy S. Movement and mental health: behavior correlates of anxiety and depression among children of 6-17 years old in the U.S. Ment Health Phys Act. 2019;16:6065. doi:10.1016/j.mhpa.2019.04.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 10.

    Zhu X, Healy S, Haegele JA, Patterson F. Twenty-four-hour movement guidelines and body weight in youth. J Pediatr. 2020;218:204209. PubMed ID: 31959469 doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2019.11.031

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 11.

    Haegele JA, Healy S, Zhu X. Physical activity and obesity among nine-year-old children with and without chronic health problems, illness, or disabilities in Ireland. Disabil Health J. 2018;11(1):143148. PubMed ID: 28802895 doi:10.1016/j.dhjo.2017.08.002

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 12.

    Healy S, Haegele JA, Grenier M, Garcia JM. Physical activity, screen-time behavior, and obesity among 13-year olds in Ireland with and without autism spectrum disorder. J Autism Dev Disord. 2017;47(1):4957. PubMed ID: 27671801 doi:10.1007/s10803-016-2920-4

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 13.

    Kim Y, Conners RT, Hart PD, Kang TS, Kang M. Association of physical activity and body mass index with metabolic syndrome among US adolescents with disabilities. Disabil Health J. 2013;6(3):253259. PubMed ID: 23769485 doi:10.1016/j.dhjo.2013.01.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 14.

    Wilson PB, Haegele JA, Zhu X. Mobility status as a predictor of obesity, physical activity, and screen-time use among children aged 5–11 years in the United States. J Pediatr. 2016;176:2329.e1. PubMed ID: 27372393 doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2016.06.016

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 15.

    Churchill SS, Kieckhefer GM, Landis CA, Ward TM. Sleep measurement and monitoring in children with Down syndrome: a review of the literature, 1960–2010. Sleep Med Rev. 2012;16(5):477488. doi:doi:10.1016/j.smrv.2011.10.003

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 16.

    Corkum P, Davidson FD, Tan-MacNeill K, Weiss SK. Sleep in children with neurodevelopmental disorders. Sleep Med Clin. 2014;9(2):149168. doi:10.1016/j.jsmc.2014.02.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 17.

    Sung V, Hiscock H, Sciberras E, Efron D. Sleep problems in children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Arch Pediat Adol Med. 2008;162(4):336. doi:10.1001/archpedi.162.4.336

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 18.

    Janssen I, Roberts KC, Thompson W. Is adherence to the Canadian 24-hour movement behaviour guidelines for children and youth associated with improved indicators of physical, mental, and social health? Appl Physiol Nutr Metab. 2017;42(7):725731. PubMed ID: 28199795 doi:10.1139/apnm-2016-0681

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 19.

    Walsh JJ, Barnes JD, Cameron JD, et al. Associations between 24 hour movement behaviours and global cognition in US children: a cross-sectional observational study. Lancet Child Adolesc Health. 2018;2(11):783791. PubMed ID: 30268792 doi:10.1016/S2352-4642(18)30278-5

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 20.

    Bandini L, Danielson M, Esposito LE, et al. Obesity in children with developmental and/or physical disabilities. Disabil Health J. 2015;8(3):309316. PubMed ID: 26058685 doi:10.1016/j.dhjo.2015.04.005

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 21.

    Healy S, Aigner CJ, Haegele JA. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US youth with autism spectrum disorder. Autism. 2019;23(4):10461050. PubMed ID: 30101597 doi:10.1177/1362361318791817

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 22.

    U.S. Census Bureau, Associate Director of Demographic Programs, National Survey of Children’s Health. The 2016-17 National Survey of Children’s Health (NSCH) Combined Data Set Fast Facts. 2018. https://www.childhealthdata.org/docs/default-source/default-document-library/2016-17-nsch_fast-facts_final6fba3af3c0266255aab2ff00001023b1.pdf?sfvrsn=569c5817_0. Accessed December 12, 2019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 23.

    Morrissey SL, Whetstone LM, Cummings DM, Owen LJ. Comparison of self-reported and measured height and weight in eighth-grade students. J Sch Health. 2016;76(10):512515. doi:10.1111/j.1746-1561.2006.00150.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 24.

    U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. 2019 Poverty Guidelines. 2019. https://aspe.hhs.gov/2019-poverty-guidelines. Accessed June 20, 2019.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 25.

    Thivel, D, Tremblay MS, Katzmarzyk PT, et al. Associations between meeting combinations of 24-hour movement recommendations and dietary patterns of children: a 12-country study. Prev Med. 2019;118:159165. PubMed ID: 30393016 doi:10.1016/j.ypmed.2018.10.025

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 26.

    Laurson KR, Lee JA, Gentile DA, Walsh DA, Eisenmann JC. Concurrent associations between physical activity, screen time, and sleep duration with childhood obesity. ISRN Obes. 2014;2014:204540. PubMed ID: 24734210 doi:10.1155/2014/204540

    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 27.

    Healy S, Aigner CJ, Haegele JA, Patterson F. Meeting the 24-hr movement guidelines: an update on US youth with autism spectrum disorder from the 2016 National Survey of Children’s Health. Autism Res. 2019;12(6):941951. PubMed ID: 30892834 doi:10.1002/aur.2095

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 28.

    Laurson KR, Lee JA, Eisenmann JC. The cumulative impact of physical activity, sleep duration, and television time on adolescent obesity: 2011 Youth Risk Behavior Survey. J Phys Act Health. 2015;12(3):355360. PubMed ID: 24828876 doi:10.1123/jpah.2013-0402

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 29.

    Healy S, Aigner CJ, Haegele JA. Prevalence of overweight and obesity among US youth with autism spectrum disorder. Autism. 2019;23(4):10461050. PubMed ID: 30101597 doi:10.1177/1362361318791817

    • Crossref
    • PubMed
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 30.

    Matheson BE, Douglas JM. Overweight and obesity in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD): a critical review investigating the etiology, development, and maintenance of this relationship. Review J Autism Develop Disord. 2017;4(2):142156. doi:10.1007/s40489-017-0103-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • 31.

    Sarker H, Anderson LN, Borkhoff CM, et al. Validation of parent-reported physical activity and sedentary time by acceleromety in young children. BMC Res Notes. 2015;8(1):735. PubMed ID: 26621253 doi:10.1186/s13104-015-1648-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 274 274 123
Full Text Views 162 162 4
PDF Downloads 74 74 5