Questionnaires Measuring 24-Hour Movement Behaviors in Childhood and Adolescence: Content Description and Measurement Properties—A Systematic Review

in Journal of Physical Activity and Health

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Bruno RodriguesFaculty of Sport, Research Centre in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal

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Jorge EncantadoCIPER, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Lisboa, Portugal

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Eliana CarraçaCIDEFES (Centro de Investigação em Desporto, Educação Física e Exercício e Saúde), Universidade Lusófona, Lisboa, Portugal

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João MartinsCIPER, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Lisboa, Portugal
Centro de Estudos de Educação, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana e UIDEF, Instituto de Educação, Universidade de Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal

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Adilson MarquesCIPER, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Lisboa, Portugal

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Luís LopesFaculty of Sport, Research Centre in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
Northern Region Health Administration, Porto, Portugal

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Eduarda Sousa-SáFaculty of Sport, Research Centre in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
CIDEFES (Centro de Investigação em Desporto, Educação Física e Exercício e Saúde), Universidade Lusófona, Lisboa, Portugal
Early Start, School of Education, Faculty of the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities, Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia

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Dylan CliffEarly Start, School of Education, Faculty of the Arts, Social Sciences and Humanities, Illawarra Health and Medical Research Institute, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, NSW, Australia

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Romeu MendesNorthern Region Health Administration, Porto, Portugal
Laboratory for Integrative and Translational Research in Population Health, Porto, Portugal
EPIUnit–Instituto de Saúde Pública, Universidade do Porto, Porto, Portugal

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Rute SantosFaculty of Sport, Research Centre in Physical Activity, Health and Leisure, University of Porto, Porto, Portugal
Laboratory for Integrative and Translational Research in Population Health, Porto, Portugal

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Background: We aim to systematically review the literature on measurement properties of self- and proxy-reported questionnaires measuring 24-hour movement behaviors in children and adolescents. Methods: PubMed, PsycINFO, SPORTDiscus, and EMBASE were searched until June 2021. Studies were included if the sample size for validity studies had 50 participants (minimum) and included, at least, both validity and test–retest reliability results of questionnaires. The review followed an adaptation of the Consensus-based Standards for the selection of health Measurement INstruments guidelines, to evaluate the quality of measurements properties of the questionnaires (content, convergent and criterion validity, reliability, measurement error, and responsiveness), as well as the risk of bias of each measurement property. Results: This review included 29 studies, describing 37 questionnaires. Sixty-eight percent showed “adequate” content validity. None of the questionnaires showed overall “adequate” criterion validity, and the risk of bias was “very low” for 92%. One questionnaire showed “adequate” convergent validity, and 73% of the studies were classified with a “high risk of bias.” Seven questionnaires showed “adequate” reliability, and 27.3% of the studies were rated with a “very low risk of bias.” None of the questionnaires showed “adequate” criterion validity and reliability, simultaneously. Conclusions: Existing questionnaires have insufficient measurement properties, and none considered the 24-hour movement behavior paradigm. These results highlight the need for better questionnaires of movement behavior combinations, to improve the monitoring and surveillance systems of 24-hour movement behaviors in this population.

Supplementary Materials

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