Physical activity (PA) is a cornerstone in the management of type 2 diabetes (T2DM). This pilot investigation explores the effects of a standard diabetes education program compared with a supplemental PA intervention on diabetes-related health outcomes.
Using a prospective 2-armed design, 96 adults with T2DM were randomly assigned to either standard care (diabetes education program; n = 49) or standard care supplemented with an 8-week, individualized-counseling and community-based PA component (n = 47). Measurements were taken at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months. Primary outcomes were changes in PA (self-report) and HbA1c. Between group changes were compared using analysis of covariance (ANCOVA) and changes over time using repeated-measures ANOVA.
In comparison with standard care, the supplemental group demonstrated an increase in PA (Ps < 0.01) and cardiorespiratory fitness (Ps < 0.05) from baseline to all follow-up time-points. HbA1c levels declined (P < .05) from baseline to all time points in the standard care group. Reduction in cholesterol-ratio (P < .01), increase in HDL (P < .05), and reductions in blood pressure, resting heart rate and BMI (approaching statistical significance Ps < 0.10) were also reported for both groups.
PA counseling in addition to standard care is effective for promoting PA behavior change and positive health-related outcomes among individuals with T2DM.
Plotnikoff, Pickering, Glenn, Reinbold-Matthews, Johnson, and Flaman are with the Faculty of Physical Education and Recreation, and Alberta Centre for Active Living, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Plotnikoff is also with the School of Education, University of Newcastle, Callaghan, Australia, and the Centre for Health Promotion Studies, School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, Alberta, Canada. Doze and McLeod are with David Thompson Health Region, Wetaskiwin, Alberta, Canada. Lau is with the Dept of Medicine and the Dept of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada. Fick is with the Dept of Community Health Science, University of Calgary, Calgary, Alberta, Canada.