Effects of Resistance Training and Dietary Changes on Physical Function and Body Composition in Overweight and Obese Older Adults

in Journal of Physical Activity and Health
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Background:

Community-based interventions that incorporate resistance training (RT) and dietary changes have not been extensively studied in overweight and obese older adults. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the effects of a community-based RT and dietary intervention on physical function and body composition in overweight and obese older adults.

Methods:

Ninety-five overweight and obese (BMI = 33.4 ± 4.0 kg/m2) older adults aged 55–80 years completed an 8-week RT and dietary intervention at 4 Rhode Island senior centers. Participants performed RT twice-weekly using resistance tubing, dumbbells, and ankle weights. Participants also attended 1 weekly dietary counseling session on a modified Dietary Approaches to Stop Hypertension diet. Outcome measurements included anthropometrics, body composition, and physical function.

Results:

There were small changes in body mass (–1.0 ± 1.8 kg, P < .001), waist circumference (–5.2 ± 3.8 cm, P < .001), and percent body fat (–0.5 ± 1.4%, P < .001). In addition, significant improvements were observed in knee extensor torque (+7.9 ± 19.1 N-m, P < .001), handgrip strength (+1.2 ± 2.5 kg, P < .001), and 8-foot up-and-go test time (–0.56 ± 0.89 s, P < .001).

Conclusion:

Community-based RT and dietary modifications can improve body composition, muscle strength, and physical function in overweight and obese older adults. Future investigations should determine if this intervention is effective for long-term changes.

Straight, Dorfman, Krol, and Delmonico are with the Dept of Kinesiology, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI. Cottell and Lofgren are with the Dept of Nutrition and Food Sciences, University of Rhode Island, Kingston, RI.