The Effects of Mastery, Competitive, and Cooperative Goals on the Performance of Simple and Complex Basketball Skills

in Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
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  • 1 University of Illinois
  • | 2 University of North Texas
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This study investigated the effects of different goal and feedback conditions on performance of a basketball shooting task and a more complex one-on-one offensive basketball task. Subjects (N= 1(D) were matched, based on pretest performance, into one of five conditions: competitive goal, cooperative goal, mastery goal, "do your best" with feedback, and "do your best" without feedback. Subjects also responded to questionnaires to allow an assessment of the strength of mastery, competitive, and social goal orientations, which reflected personal achievement goals held before goal-setting instructions were offered. Results indicated that the competitive goal group performed significantly better than the do-your-best-without-feedback group in one-on-one posttest trials. No other between-group performance differences were significant. Subjects' goal orientations were not related to performance in the competitive and cooperative goal conditions, but significant relationships were found for mastery goal group subjects. The results are discussed in terms of Locke's theory of goal setting as well as achievement motivation research on goal orientations, and future directions for research are offered.

Requests for reprints should be sent to John Giannini, University of Illinois, Department of Kinesiology, 906 S. Goodwin Ave., Urbana, IL 61801.

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