The Effects of Subjective and Objective Competitive Outcomes on Intrinsic Motivation

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Edward McAuley University of Oregon

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Vanee V. Tammen University of Illinois

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The present study was designed to assess the effects of subjective and objective competitive outcomes on intrinsic motivation following completion of a one-on-one basketball jump-shooting competition. Researchers all too often operationalize competitive outcomes in terms of winning and losing, and neglect to examine performance from the subjective perspective of the individual. The intrinsic motivation of winners and losers and individuals high and low in perceived success were compared by employing a multidimensional measure of intrinsic motivation. Results indicated that both winners and high success individuals displayed significantly greater intrinsic motivation than losers and low. success individuals, respectively. However, multivariate analyses of variance demonstrated significant differences only between the perceived success groups when intrinsic motivation was examined at a multidimensional level. Specifically, high success individuals perceived themselves as trying; harder, being more competent, and enjoying' the activity "more. These findings are discussed from a cognitive evaluation perspective that: focuses on the role played by self-perception of events in relation to motivational processes.

This study is based in part on a master's thesis completed by the second author under the direction of the first author while both were at Kansas State University. Edward McAuley. is with the Department' of PEHMS, 171 Esslinger Hall,. University of Oregon, Eugene,. OR 97403. Vance V. Tammen is with the Department of Kinesiology at the University of Illinois, Urbana, IL 61801.

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