Predicting Pain Response In Athletes: Development and Assessment of the Sports Inventory for Pain

in Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
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It is generally recognized that athletes differ in their ability to function with pain following injury. In an effort to measure this differing ability, the Sports Inventory for Pain (SIP) was developed using input from injured athletes, a college student sample, and information generated through the pain research literature. The SIP consists of 25 items that identify five pain subscales (coping, cognitive, avoidance, catastrophizing, and body awareness) and a composite score (HURT). Cronbach's coefficient alpha levels, ranging from .88 to .61, confirmed internal consistency reliability. Test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from .69 to .88. ANOVA and subsequent post hoc analyses that compared groups (categorized by number of injuries, years of sport participation, and number of sports played) on each subscale and on the composite promise satisfactory validity. Pearson correlations between social desirability and the SIP subscales were nonsignificant (p>.05; n=39), ranging from −.06 to .22. The SIP serves as a sport-specific measure of an athlete's capacity to perform while in pain. Further research aimed at establishing its validity is warranted.

M.C. Meyers is now with the Department of Kinesiology at Kansas State University, Manhattan, KS 66506. A.E. Bourgeois, S. Stewart, and A. LeUnes are with the Department of Psychology at Texas A&M University, College Station, TX 77843.