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This article presents the results of a structural equation modeling analysis of the Sport Commitment Model. This model proposes that commitment is determined by sport enjoyment, involvement alternatives, personal investments, social constraints, and involvement opportunities. Preliminary analyses demonstrated that the model was applicable to both younger (< 12 years old) and older (> 13 years old) athletes, to males and females, and to three different team sports. Structural equation modeling results demonstrated that the proposed model was a good fit of the data (CFI = .981), with the findings accounting for 68% of the commitment variance. As predicted, greater sport enjoyment, involvement opportunities, and the personal investments of time and effort led to greater commitment. Counter to our initial hypothesis, commitment was negatively related to social constraints. Measurement problems led to the involvement alternatives component being excluded from tests of the model presented here, but not from the theoretical model.
P. Carpenter and T. Scanlan are with the Department of Psychology at UCLA, 1285 Franz Hall, Los Angeles, CA 90024-1563. J. Simons is with the Department of Kinesiology at the University of Colorado at Boulder, Campus Box 3544, Boulder, CO 80309-0354. M. Lobel is with the Department of Psychology at the State University of New York at Stony Brook, Stony Brook, NY 11794.