Toward a New Measure of Intrinsic Motivation, Extrinsic Motivation, and Amotivation in Sports: The Sport Motivation Scale (SMS)

in Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
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A new measure of motivation toward sport has been developed in French, namely the Echelle de Motivation vis-à-vis les Sports. Two studies were conducted to translate and validate this new measure in English. The Sport Motivation Scale (SMS) consists of seven subscales that measure three types of Intrinsic Motivation (IM; IM to Know, IM to Accomplish Things, and IM to Experience Stimulation), three forms of regulation for Extrinsic Motivation (Identified, Introjected, and External), and Amotivation. The first study confirmed the factor structure of the scale and revealed a satisfactory level of internal consistency. Correlations among the subscales revealed a simplex pattern confirming the self-determination continuum and the construct validity of the scale. Gender differences were similar to those obtained with the French-Canadian version. The more self-determined forms of motivation were associated with more positive responses on related consequences. In a second study, the SMS was administered on two occasions and revealed adequate test-retest reliability.

L.G. Pelletier and K.M. Tuson are with the School of Psychology at the University of Ottawa, Ottawa, ON Canada K1N 6N5. M.S. Fortier, R.J. Vallerand, and M.R. Blais are with the Laboratorie de Recherche sur le Comportement Social, Départment de Psychologie, Université du Québec à Montréal, P.O. Box 8888, Station “Centre-ville,” Montreal, PQ Canada H3C 3P8. N.M. Brière is with Régie Régionale de la Santé et des Services Sociaux Gaspésie–Iles de la Madeleine, Gaspé, PQ Canada G0C 1R0.