This study investigated (a) the differences between the offensive and defensive personnel of football teams in preferred leadership, perceived leadership, and satisfaction with leadership, and (b) the relationships among preferred and perceived leadership, their congruence, and satisfaction with leadership. The study employed hierarchical regression procedures to test the congruence hypothesis derived from the multidimensional model of leadership. The results showed that defensive players preferred and perceived greater amounts of democratic behavior, autocratic behavior, and social support than did offensive players. Also, the congruence of preferred and perceived leadership in the dimension of social support was critical to enhancing member satisfaction. On the other hand, perceived leadership (i.e., the actual behaviors) in training and instruction as well as positive feedback were stronger determinants of satisfaction with leadership than either the preferred leadership or the congruence of preferred and perceived leadership in these dimensions.
Harold A. Riemer is with the School of HPER at Bowling Green State University, Bowling Green, OH 43403. Packianathan Chelladurai is with the School of HPER at The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210.