It is becoming increasingly important to determine whether structural models of measures of sport and activity behavior developed in North America are invarant across different populations. This study assessed (a) the cross-cultural validity of the Task and Ego Orientation in Sport Questionnaire (TEOSQ) using male college students across the United States (n = 309), Thailand (n = 312), and Taiwan (n = 307); and (b) the factorial equivalence and structured latent mean differences of the TEOSQ in these samples. Using a confirmatory factor analytic procedure, the initial test of the hypothesized two-factor structure representing task and ego orientation yielded a good fit for each sample. The factor structure was further shown to be metric invariant across the three countries. Furthermore, tests of latent means showed significant differences between groups. The United States sample exhibited the highest levels of task and ego orientation, followed by the Taiwan and Thailand samples, respectively.
Fuzhong Li is with the Oregon Research Institute, 1715 Franklin Blvd., Eugene, OR 94703. Peter Harmer is with the Department of Exercise Science at Willamette University, Salem, OR, 97301. Likang Chi is with the Graduate Institute of Coaching Science at the National College of Physical Education and Sport, Taiwan. Naruepon Vongjaturapat is with the Department of Physical Education and Recreation, Burapha University, Thailand.