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Hanin’s (1980) zones of optimal functioning (ZOF) hypothesis suggests that a person is most likely to attain peak performance within an individual, specific bandwidth of state anxiety. The present study investigated Hanin’s ZOF hypothesis within a multidimensional framework, whereby zones of optimal functioning were computed for cognitive and somatic anxiety. Participants (N = 25) were members of a competitive bowling league; they completed the CSAI- 2 prior to each league match over a period of 20 weeks. Performance was operationalized as each participant’s score in the first game of each match, and these scores were standardized within subjects. The analysis revealed a significant main effect for somatic anxiety zone level and a significant interaction between cognitive and somatic anxiety zone levels (below, in, and above zone) and subsequent performance. Results are discussed in terms of the theoretical implications for future researchers, specifically in relation to the cusp catastrophe model.
Tim Woodman and Lew Hardy are with the School of Sport, Health and Physical Education Sciences at the University of Wales, Bangor, Ffriddoedd Building, Victoria Drive Bangor, Gwynedd LL57 2EN, United Kingdom. John G. Albinson is with the School of Physical and Health Education at Queen’s University, Kingston. ON Canada K7L 3N6.