Three different samples (total N = 485) participated in the development and refinement of the Leadership Scale for Sports (LSS). A five-factor solution with 40 items describing the most salient dimensions of coaching behavior was selected as the most meaningful. These factors were named Training and Instruction, Democratic Behavior, Autocratic Behavior, Social Support, and Positive Feedback. Internal consistency estimates ranged from .45 to .93 and the test-retest reliability coefficients ranged from .71 to .82. The relative stability of the factor structure across the different samples confirmed the factorial validity of the scale. The interpretation of the factors established the content validity of the scale. Finally, possible uses of the LSS were pointed out.
The authors wish to thank Dr. Albert V. Carron and Dr. Ian Spence for their helpful comments in the preparation of this paper. This study could not have been completed without the kind co-operation of the coaches and the athletes of the various varsity teams, and the generous assistance of the local contacts. We express our sincere gratitude to them all. Requests for reprints and/or copies of the LSS should be addressed to P. Chelladurai, Faculty of Physical Education, University of Western Ontario, London, Canada.