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The purposes of this study were to identify sources of self-confidence in athletes within the sport-confidence framework of Vealey (1986, 1988), develop a reliable and valid measure of sources of sport-confidence, and extend the conceptual framework of sport-confidence to include sources and test predictions within the expanded model. In Phases 1, 2, and 3 of the study, the preliminary conceptual basis for sources of sport-confidence was developed and initial psychometric evidence supported the factor structure, reliability, and validity of the Sources of Sport-Confidence Questionnaire (SSCQ) with 335 college athletes. In Phase 4, a confirmatory factor analysis supported the hypothesized nine-factor structure of the SSCQ using 208 high school basketball players as participants. The theoretical and practical significance of certain sources of confidence in building stable and enduring self-confidence and motivation in sport are discussed based on the study results.
Robin S. Vealey is with the Department of PHS, Phillips Hall, Miami University, Oxford, OH 45056. Susan Walter Hayashi is with the Department of Kinesiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing, MI 48824. Megan Garner-Holman is with the U.S. Field Hockey Association, 1 Olympic Plaza, Colorado Springs, CO 80909. Peter Giacobbi is with the Department of HPER, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, TN 37996-2700.