A 2 × 2 Achievement Goals Questionnaire for Sport: Evidence for Factorial Invariance, Temporal Stability, and External Validity

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David E. Conroy The Pennsylvania State University

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Andrew J. Elliot University of Rochester

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Scott M. Hofer The Pennsylvania State University

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Achievement goals in sport have traditionally been defined according to the definition of competence alone (i.e., mastery/task, performance/ego). Emerging research and theory from the academic domain indicates that the utility of the achievement goal construct can be enhanced when the valence (i.e., approach, avoidance) of goals is also considered in conjunction with the definition of competence. The present study was designed to evaluate the psychometric properties of scores for mastery-approach, mastery-avoidance, performance-approach, and performance-avoidance goals from a measure of achievement goals in sport. The a priori 2 × 2 model fit the data better than any of the plausible alternative models. In a series of longitudinal factorial invariance and latent growth curve analyses, scores for the four subscales exhibited structural invariance, and both differential and latent mean stability over a 21-day period. Achievement goal scores conformed to theoretical predictions regarding their relationship with fear-of-failure scores. The AGQ-S would be an appropriate instrument for future research using the 2 × 2 model of achievement goals in sport, particularly for experimental/intervention research on change processes associated with achievement goals.

D.E. Conroy is with the Dept of Kinesiology, and S.M. Hofer is with the Dept. of Human Development & Family Studies, Penn State University, University Park, PA 16802; A.J. Elliot is with the Dept. of Clinical & Social Sciences in Psychology, University of Rochester, Rochester, NY 14627.

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