Drawing on self-determination theory, Mullan, Markland, and Ingledew (1997) developed the Behavioural Regulation in Exercise Questionnaire (BREQ) to measure the continuum of behavioral regulation in exercise contexts. The BREQ assesses external, identified, introjected, and intrinsic regulations. Mullan et al. initially included a set of amotivation items but dropped these due to high levels of skewness and a restricted response range in their development sample. It would clearly be useful to assess amotivation for exercise. This study aimed to test the factorial validity of a modified BREQ with amotivation items reinstated in a sample likely to exhibit a wider range of amotivation responses. A total of 194 former exercise referral scheme participants completed the revised instrument (BREQ-2). Although the amotivation items were still skewed, confirmatory factor analysis using the Satorra-Bentler (1994) scaling correction to χ2 indicated an excellent model ft. The BREQ-2 could prove useful to researchers wishing to assess amotivation in order to develop a more complete understanding of motivation for exercise.
The authors are with the School of Sport, Health and Exercise Sciences, University of Wales, Bangor, George Bldg, Holyhead Rd, Bangor, Gwynedd, Wales, UK, LL57 2PX.