The present paper outlines the development of a sport-specific measure of precompetitive emotion to assess anger, anxiety, dejection, excitement, and happiness. Face, content, factorial, and concurrent validity were examined over four stages. Stage 1 had 264 athletes complete an open-ended questionnaire to identify emotions experienced in sport. The item pool was extended through the inclusion of additional items taken from the literature. In Stage 2 a total of 148 athletes verified the item pool while a separate sample of 49 athletes indicated the extent to which items were representative of the emotions anger, anxiety, dejection, excitement, and happiness. Stage 3 had 518 athletes complete a provisional Sport Emotion Questionnaire (SEQ) before competition. Confirmatory factor analysis indicated that a 22-item and 5-fac-tor structure provided acceptable model fit. Results from Stage 4 supported the criterion validity of the SEQ. The SEQ is proposed as a valid measure of precompetitive emotion for use in sport settings.
Faculty of Health and Sciences, Staffordshire Univ., Stoke-on-Trent, ST4 2DF, U.K.
Dept. of Sports Studies, Univ. of Wolverhampton, Walsall, WS1 3BD, U.K.
Dept. of Kinesiology, McMaster Univ., Hamilton, ON, L8S 4K1 Canada
Dept. of Sport Science Tourism & Leisure, Canterbury Christ Church University, Canterbury, CT1 1QU, U.K.