The present study tested the cross-cultural generalizability of the measurement and structural parameters of the theory of planned behavior (TPB) among youth in a physical activity context. Pupils from five cultural groups completed measures of attitudes, subjective norms, perceived behavioral control (PBC), and intentions for physical activity. Five weeks later, participants completed self-report measures of physical activity behavior. Confirmatory factor analyses and multisample structural equation models revealed well-fitting models within each sample with minimal variations in the measurement parameters across cultures. There were a few significant cross-cultural differences in the structural relations among the TPB constructs. Attitudes predicted intentions in all samples (β range = .300 to .550), whereas the effect of the subjective norms on intention was nonsignificant in all but the Hungarian sample (β = .243). Conversely, the effect of PBC on intentions was significant (β range = .302 to .573) in all but the Hungarian sample. Findings support the generalizability of the measures and pattern of effects for the TPB among young people in a physical activity context.
Hagger is with the School of Psychology, University of Nottingham, U.K.; Chatzisarantis is with the School of Psychology, University of Plymouth, U.K.; Barkoukis is with the Department of Physical Education and Sport Science, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, Greece; C.K. John Wang is with the National Institute of Education, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore; Hein and Pihu are with the Faculty of Exercise and Sports Sciences, University of Tartu, Estonia; Soós is with the School of Health, Natural, and Social Sciences, University of Sunderland, U.K.; and Karsai is with the Institute of Physical Education and Sport Science, University of Pécs, Hungary.