Long and Short Measures of Flow: The Construct Validity of the FSS-2, DFS-2, and New Brief Counterparts

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Susan A. Jackson University of Queensland

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Andrew J. Martin University of Sydney

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Robert C. Eklund Florida State University

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Long and short flow scales are examined from dispositional (n = 652 long; n = 692 short) and state (n = 499 long; n = 865 short) perspectives. The long flow scales constitute a 36-item multidimensional assessment of flow and have previously demonstrated good psychometric properties. The short flow scales constitute new abbreviated versions of the long forms, contain 9 items, and provide a brief measure of flow from a dimensional perspective. In the current study, long and short flow scales are assessed across a large and diverse physical activity sample. With few exceptions, these flow measures demonstrated acceptable model ft, reliability, and distributions; associations with key correlates in parallel and hypothesized ways; and invariance in factor loadings. Together, the scales provide options for assessing flow in different contexts and when different goals or constraints are operating. Researchers wanting to capture an aggregate of the multidimensional framework might find the short scales a pragmatic alternative when constraints prohibit use of the full-length versions.

Jackson is with the School of Human Movement Studies, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia; Martin is with the Faculty of Education and Social Work, University of Sydney, Sydney, Australia; and Eklund is with the Department of Educational Psychology and Learning Systems, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL. Copyright to the long and short flow scales is held by Jackson. Please direct any enquiries regarding use of the scales to the authors.

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