Development of a Cohesion Questionnaire for Youth: The Youth Sport Environment Questionnaire

in Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
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The purpose of the current study was to initiate the development of a psychometrically sound measure of cohesion for youth sport groups. A series of projects were undertaken in a four-phase research program. The initial phase was designed to garner an understanding of how youth sport group members perceived the concept of cohesion through focus groups (n = 56), open-ended questionnaires (n = 280), and a literature review. In Phase 2, information from the initial projects was used in the development of 142 potential items and content validity was assessed. In Phase 3, 227 participants completed a revised 87-item questionnaire. Principal components analyses further reduced the number of items to 17 and suggested a two-factor structure (i.e., task and social cohesion dimensions). Finally, support for the factorial validity of the resultant questionnaire was provided through confirmatory factor analyses with an independent sample (n = 352) in Phase 4. The final version of the questionnaire contains 16 items that assess task and social cohesion in addition to 2 negatively worded spurious items. Specific issues related to assessing youth perceptions of cohesion are discussed and future research directions are suggested.

Eys is now with the Kinesiology/Physical Education and Psychology Departments, Wilfrid Laurier University, Waterloo, ON, Canada. Loughead is with the School of Human Kinetics, University of Windsor, Windsor, ON, Canada. Bray is with the Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada. Carron is with the Department of Kinesiology, University of Western Ontario, London, ON, Canada.