We draw upon transformational leadership theory to develop an instrument to measure transformational parenting for use with adolescents. First, potential items were generated that were developmentally appropriate and evidence for content validity was provided through the use of focus groups with parents and adolescents. We subsequently provide evidence for several aspects of construct validity of measures derived from the Transformational Parenting Questionnaire (TPQ). Data were collected from 857 adolescents (Mage = 14.70 years), who rated the behaviors of their mothers and fathers. The results provided support for a second-order measurement model of transformational parenting. In addition, positive relationships between mothers’ and fathers’ transformational parenting behaviors, adolescents’ self-regulatory efficacy for physical activity and healthy eating, and life satisfaction were found. The results of this research support the application of transformational leadership theory to parenting behaviors, as well as the construct validity of measures derived from the TPQ.
Katie L. Morton is with the School of Kinesiology, University of British Columbia, Canada. Julian Barling is with the School of Business, Queen’s University, Canada. Ryan E. Rhodes is with the School of Exercise Science, Physical and Health Education, University of Victoria, Canada; Louise C. Mâsse is with the Department of Pediatrics, University of British Columbia, Canada. Bruno D. Zumbo is with the Department of Counseling Psychology, University of British Columbia, Canada. Mark R. Beauchamp is with the School of Kinesiology, University of British Columbia, Canada.