The Effects of High Pressure on the Point of No Return in Simulated Penalty Kicks

in Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
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We investigated the effects of high pressure on the point of no return or the minimum time required for a kicker to respond to the goalkeeper’s dive in a simulated penalty kick task. The goalkeeper moved to one side with different times available for the participants to direct the ball to the opposite side in low-pressure (acoustically isolated laboratory) and high-pressure situations (with a participative audience). One group of participants showed a significant lengthening of the point of no return under high pressure. With less time available, performance was at chance level. Unexpectedly, in a second group of participants, high pressure caused a qualitative change in which for short times available participants were inclined to aim in the direction of the goalkeeper’s move. The distinct effects of high pressure are discussed within attentional control theory to reflect a decreasing efficiency of the goal-driven attentional system, slowing down performance, and a decreasing effectiveness in inhibiting stimulus-driven behavior.

Martina Navarro is with the Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, and with Research Institute Move, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Nelson Miyamoto is with the Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. John van der Kamp is with Research Institute Move, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and with the Institute of Human Performance, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong. Edgard Morya is with the Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil, and with Edmond and Lily Safra International Neuroscience Institute of Natal, Natal, Rio Grande do Norte, Brazil. Ronald Ranvaud is with the Department of Physiology and Biophysics, Institute of Biomedical Sciences, University of São Paulo, São Paulo, Brazil. Geert J.P. Savelsbergh is with Research Institute Move, Faculty of Human Movement Sciences, VU University Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands, and with the Institute for Biomedical Research into Human Movement and Health, Manchester Metropolitan University, Manchester, U.K.