Development of, and Initial Validity Evidence for, the Referee Self-Efficacy Scale: A Multistudy Report

in Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
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The purpose of this multistudy report was to develop, and then to provide initial validity evidence for measures derived from, the Referee Self-Efficacy Scale. Data were collected from referees (N = 1609) in the United States (n = 978) and Spain (n = 631). In Study 1 (n = 512), a single-group exploratory structural equation model provided evidence for four factors: game knowledge, decision making, pressure, and communication. In Study 2 (n = 1153), multiple-group confirmatory factor analytic models provided evidence for partial factorial invariance by country, level of competition, team gender, and sport refereed. In Study 3 (n = 456), potential sources of referee self-efficacy information combined to account for a moderate or large amount of variance in each dimension of referee self-efficacy with years of referee experience, highest level refereed, physical/mental preparation, and environmental comfort, each exerting at least two statistically significant direct effects.

Nicholas D. Myers is with the Department of Educational and Psychological Studies, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL. Deborah L. Feltz is with the Department of Kinesiology, Michigan State University, East Lansing. MI. Félix Guillén is with the Department of Psychology and Sociology, University of Las Palmas de Gran Canaria, Spain. Lori Dithurbide is now with the School of Health and Human Performance, Dalhousie University, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada.