Interpersonal feedback from coaches may be instrumental in the formation of children’s self-efficacy to learn or perform sport skills. We report on two studies that explored perceived sources of self-efficacy and relation-inferred self-efficacy (RISE) in one-on-one interviews with sport camp participants (N = 61; ages 7–12) and focus groups with recreational league participants (N = 28; ages 8–12). Participants’ responses indicated that prior experiences and socially constructed interactions contributed to the development of self-efficacy and RISE beliefs. Results support Bandura’s (1997) theorizing that self-efficacy is developed through processing of experiential feedback as well as Lent and Lopez’s (2002) tripartite theory proposing interpersonal feedback from influential others contributes to children’s RISE and self-efficacy.
Paul D. Saville, Steven R. Bray, Kathleen A. Martin Ginis, Deborah Marinoff-Shupe, and Andrew Pettit are with the Department of Kinesiology, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada. John Cairney is with the Department of Family Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, ON, Canada.