Development and Validation of the Multidimensional Motivational Climate Observation System

in Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
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  • 1 University of Birmingham
  • 2 University of Grenoble
  • 3 University of Thessaly
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This article outlines the development and validation of the Multidimensional Motivational Climate Observation System (MMCOS). Drawing from an integration of the dimensions of the social environment emphasized within achievement goal theory and self-determination theory (as assumed within Duda’s [2013] conceptualization of “empowering” and “disempowering” climates), the MMCOS was developed to enable an objective assessment of the coach-created motivational environment in sport. Study 1 supported the initial validity and reliability of the newly developed observation system. Study 2 further examined the interobserver reliability and factorial structure of the MMCOS. Study 3 explored the predictive validity of the observational system in relation to athletes’ reported basic psychological need satisfaction. Overall, the results of these studies provide preliminary support for the inter- and intraobserver reliability, as well as factorial and predictive validity of the MMCOS. Suggestions for the use of this observational system in future research in sport are provided.

Nathan Smith is with the School of Sport, Exercise, and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK. Damien Tessier is with the Laboratory Sport and Social Environment, University of Grenoble, Grenoble, France. Yannis Tzioumakis is with the Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Thessaly, Thessaly, Greece. Eleanor Quested and Paul Appleton are with the School of Sport, Exercise, and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK. Philippe Sarrazin is with the Laboratory Sport and Social Environment, University of Grenoble, Grenoble, France. Athanasios Papaioannou is with the Department of Physical Education and Sport Sciences, University of Thessaly, Thessaly, Greece. Joan L. Duda is with the School of Sport, Exercise, and Rehabilitation Sciences, University of Birmingham, Birmingham, UK. Address author correspondence to Nathan Smith at nxs704@bham.ac.uk.