In two separate studies, members of 16 women's intramural volleyball teams (n = 94) and six women's intercollegiate volleyball teams (n = 68) completed pre-and postmatch questionnaires to determine the immediate effects of success-failure on perceptions of cohesion. A 2 × 2 (win-loss × pre-post) MANOVA on seven cohesion items yielded significant win-loss and pre-post main effects, and a significant win-loss by pre-post interaction for intramural teams. Univariate analyses indicated that winners increased and losers decreased in cohesion ratings from pre- to postmatch on three variables: level of teamwork, cohesion, and sense of belonging. Multivariate analyses yielded no significant effects for intercollegiate teams, although a univariate interaction similar to that in intramural teams was found for the cohesion variable. The results suggest that perceptions of cohesion are influenced by the immediate effects of win-loss.
Requests for reprints should be sent to M. Karen Ruder, Department of Physical Education & Dance, Halsey Gym, The University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242.