Sport-specific motive scales were developed for power, achievement, and fear-of failure. Pilot testing resulted in 80 Likert-type items for the three scales, which were administered to 764 males and 253 females. Subjects were junior high to college level athletes representing 17 sports and 22 schools or colleges. Item analysis further reduced the number of items to 40. Alpha reliabilities for the three scales ranged from .76 to .78, whereas test-retest reliabilities after 8 weeks were .69 to .75. Evidence of content, criterion-related, and construct validity was presented. All scales were found to be relatively free of social desirability bias. It was concluded that the use of the scales was justified when confined to the study of groups and for research purposes only.
Requests for reprints should be sent to Joe D. Willis, Georgia State University, University Plaza, Atlanta, GA 30303.