Mahoney and Avener's (1977) categorization of imagery into “internal” (first-person visual and kinesthetic) and “external” (third-person visual) perspectives suggested a viable means to quantifiably test Jacobson's (1931) finding that “visualizing” a biceps “curl” produced only ocular responses while “muscularly imagining” the same movement just generated localized biceps activity. A significant within-subjects main effect (p < .001) revealed that the internal imagery condition produced more integrated biceps activity than the external imagery condition as predicted by Lang's (1979) bio-informational theory of emotional imagery.
This article is based on a thesis submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements of a PhD degree at The Pennsylvania State University by the author under the supervision of Dorothy V. Harris. The author would also like to thank Dr. Daniel M. Landers and Dr. Michael J. Mahoney for their critical comments. Requests for reprints should be sent to Bruce D. Hale, College of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation Undergraduate Center, 102 Waring Hall, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA 16802.