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This study is part of a program of research investigating coaches delivering psychological skills (PS). Here, 3 studies feature an original conceptualization of coaching PS and the development and validation of 2 questionnaires capturing the coaching of PS. The authors conducted a qualitative investigation to establish a conceptual framework that included the fundamental coaching of PS behaviors (CPS-F) and the needs-supportive coaching of PS (CPS-NS). They then tested the factor structure of 2 subsequently developed questionnaires via a Bayesian structural equation modeling approach to confirmatory factor analysis across 2 samples and ran tests of invariance, concurrent, discriminant, and predictive validity. The CPS-F questionnaire showed an excellent fit for a 3-factor model, whereas the CPS-NS demonstrated an excellent single-factor fit. Significant relationships with theoretically related constructs suggested concurrent, discriminant, and predictive validity. The findings are expected to significantly further research into our understanding of coaches coaching PS.
Arthur is with the School of Health and Life Sciences, University of the West of Scotland, Scotland, United Kingdom. Callow, Roberts, and Glendinning are with the Inst. for the Psychology of Elite Performance, Bangor University, Bangor, United Kingdom.