Interplay Between Workload and Functional Perceptual–Cognitive–Affective Responses: An Inclusive Model

in Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $84.00

1 year subscription

USD  $111.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $159.00

2 year subscription

USD  $208.00

The extent to and manner in which psychological states change as a function of physical effort and related physiological responses have been addressed separately in various theoretical frameworks. The authors explored a proposed conceptual scheme examining the relationships among perceived exertion, attentional allocation, and affective responses under different workload domains. Thirty male participants performed an incremental cycling test to assess the progression of rating of perceived exertion, attentional focus, affect, and felt arousal along a parallel increase in heart rate using ventilatory threshold as a reference point. Results revealed that ventilatory threshold acts as a metabolic landmark for the attentional shifts toward aversive sensory cues, sustained increases in perceived exertion, negative valence, and physiological activation. Monitoring the dynamics of perceived exertion, attention, and affect can complement physiological measures for an accurate control of training workloads during exercise prescription.

Alvarez-Alvarado, Chow, Gabana, and Tenenbaum are with the Dept. of Educational Psychology and Learning Systems, College of Education, and Hickner, the Dept. of Nutrition, Food, and Exercise Science, College of Human Sciences, Florida State University, Tallahassee, FL.

Alvarez-Alvarado (sa12d@my.fsu.edu) is corresponding author.
  • Aragonés, D., Balagué, N., Hristovski, R., Pol, R., & Tenenbaum, G. (2013). Fluctuating dynamics of perceived exertion in constant-power exercise. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 14(6), 796–803. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.05.009

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Baden, D.A., McLean, T.L., Tucker, R., Noakes, T.D., & St Clair Gibson, A. (2005). Effect of anticipation during unknown or unexpected exercise duration on rating of perceived exertion, affect, and physiological function. British Journal of Sports Medicine, 39(10), 742–746. PubMed ID: 16183771 doi:10.1136/bjsm.2004.016980

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Balagué, N., Aragonés, D., Hristovski, R., García, S., & Tenenbaum, G. (2014). El foco de atención emerge espontáneamente durante el ejercicio progresivo y máximo. Revista de Psicologia Del Deporte, 23(1), 57–63.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Balagué, N., Hristovski, R., Aragonés, D., & Tenenbaum, G. (2012). Nonlinear model of attention focus during accumulated effort. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 13(5), 591–597. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2012.02.013

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Balagué, N., Hristovski, R., García, S., Aguirre, C., Vazquez, P., Razon, S., & Tenenbaum, G. (2015). Dynamics of perceived exertion in constant-power cycling: Time- and workload-dependent thresholds. Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport, 86(4), 371–378. doi:10.1080/02701367.2015.1078870

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Balagué, N., Hristovski, R., García, S., Aragonés, D., Razon, S., & Tenenbaum, G. (2015). Intentional thought dynamics during exercise performed until volitional exhaustion. Journal of Sports Sciences, 33(1), 48–57. doi:10.1080/02640414.2014.921833

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Borg, G. (1982). Psychophysical bases of perceived exertion. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 14(5), 377–381. PubMed ID: 7154893

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Borg, G. (1998). Borg’s perceived exertion and pain scales. Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

  • British Columbia Department of Health. (1975). The physical activity readiness questionnaire: Validation report for the 1975 modified version. Vancouver, BC: Author.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Chilibeck, P.D., Paterson, D.H., Smith, W.D., & Cunningham, D.A. (1996). Cardiorespiratory kinetics during exercise of different muscle groups and mass in old and young. Journal of Applied Physiology, 81(3), 1388–1394. PubMed ID: 26806874 doi:10.1152/jappl.1996.81.3.1388

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, J. (1988). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences (2nd ed.). Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum.

  • Crouter, S.E., Antczak, A., Hudak, J.R., DellaValle, D.M., & Haas, J.D. (2006). Accuracy and reliability of the ParvoMedics TrueOne 2400 and MedGraphics VO2000 metabolic systems. European Journal of Applied Physiology, 98(2), 139–151. PubMed ID: 16896734 doi:10.1007/s00421-006-0255-0

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Dishman, R.K., Sallis, J.F., & Orenstein, D.R. (1984). The determinants of physical activity and exercise. Public Health Reports, 100(2), 158–71. PubMed ID: 30951146

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ekkekakis, P. (2003). Pleasure and displeasure from the body: Perspectives from exercise. Cognition and Emotion, 17(2), 213–236.

  • Ekkekakis, P. (2013). Pleasure from the exercising body: Two centuries of changing outlooks in psychological thought. In P. Ekkekakis, Routledge handbook of physical activity and mental health (pp. 57–78). London, UK: Routledge.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ekkekakis, P., Backhouse, S.H., Gray, C., & Lind, E. (2008). Walking is popular among adults but is it pleasant? A framework for clarifying the link between walking and affect as illustrated in two studies. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9(3), 246–264. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.04.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ekkekakis, P., Hall, E.E., & Petruzzello, S.J. (2005). Variation and homogeneity in affective responses to physical activity of varying intensities: An alternative perspective on dose-response based on evolutionary considerations. Journal of Sports Sciences, 23(5), 477–500. PubMed ID: 16194996 doi:10.1080/02640410400021492

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ekkekakis, P., & Lind, E. (2006). Exercise does not feel the same when you are overweight: The impact of self-selected and imposed intensity on affect and exertion. International Journal of Obesity, 30(4), 652–660. PubMed ID: 16130028 doi:10.1038/sj.ijo.0803052

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ekkekakis, P., Lind, E., & Vazou, S. (2010). Affective responses to increasing levels of exercise intensity in normal-weight, overweight, and obese middle-aged women. Obesity, 18(1), 79–85. PubMed ID: 19556979 doi:10.1038/oby.2009.204

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ekkekakis, P., Parfitt, G., & Petruzzello, S.J. (2011). The pleasure and displeasure people feel when they exercise at different intensities: Decennial update and progress towards a tripartite rationale for exercise intensity prescription. Sports Medicine, 41(8), 641–671. PubMed ID: 21780850 doi:10.2165/11590680-000000000-00000

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Enders, H., Von Tscharner, V., & Nigg, B.M. (2015). Neuromuscular strategies during cycling at different muscular demands. Medicine & Science in Sports & Exercise, 47(7), 1450–1459. PubMed ID: 25380476 doi:10.1249/MSS.0000000000000564

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A.-G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39(2), 175–191. PubMed ID: 17695343 doi:10.3758/BF03193146

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • García, S., Razon, S., Hristovski, R., Balagué, N., & Tenenbaum, G. (2015). Dynamic stability of task-related thoughts in trained runners. The Sport Psychologist, 29(4), 302–309. doi:10.1123/tsp.2014-0094

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hardy, C., & Rejeski, W. (1989). Not what, but how one feels: The measurement of affect during exercise. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 11, 304–317. doi:10.1123/jsep.11.3.304

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hristovski, R., & Balagué, N. (2010). Fatigue-induced spontaneous termination point–nonequilibrium phase transitions and critical behavior in quasi-isometric exertion. Human Movement Science, 29(4), 483–493. PubMed ID: 20619908 doi:10.1016/j.humov.2010.05.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hutchinson, J.C., Karageorghis, C.I., & Jones, L. (2015). See hear: Psychological effects of music and music-video during treadmill running. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 49(2), 199–211. PubMed ID: 25142042 doi:10.1007/s12160-014-9647-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hutchinson, J.C., & Tenenbaum, G. (2007). Attention focus during physical effort: The mediating role of task intensity. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 8(2), 233–245. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2006.03.006

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jones, L., Karageorghis, C.I., & Ekkekakis, P. (2014). Can high-intensity exercise be more pleasant? Attentional dissociation using music and video. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 36(5), 528–541. PubMed ID: 25356615 doi:10.1123/jsep.2013-0251

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Karageorghis, C.I., & Jones, L. (2014). On the stability and relevance of the exercise heart rate-music-tempo preference relationship. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 15(3), 299–310. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2013.08.004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Lind, E., Ekkekakis, P., & Vazou, S. (2008). The affective impact of exercise intensity that slightly exceeds the preferred level: “Pain” for no additional “gain.” Journal of Health Psychology, 13(4), 464–468. PubMed ID: 18420754 doi:10.1177/1359105308088517

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Masters, K.S., & Ogles, B.M. (1998). Associative and dissociative cognitive strategies in exercise and running: 20 Years later, what do we know? The Sport Psychologist, 12(12), 253–270. doi:10.1123/tsp.12.3.253

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meir, G., Hutchinson, J.C., Habeeb, C.M., Boiangin, N.M., Shaffer, C., Basevitch, I., & Tenenbaum, G. (2015). Are the measurements of attention allocation and perceived exertion trustworthy? Measurement in Physical Education and Exercise Science, 19(4), 167–176. doi:10.1080/1091367X.2015.1061531

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Meyer, T., Lucía, A., Earnest, C.P., & Kindermann, W. (2005). A conceptual framework for performance diagnosis and training prescription from submaximal gas exchange parameters—Theory and application. International Journal of Sports Medicine, 26(1), 38–48. doi:10.1055/s-2004-830514

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mezzani, A., Hamm, L.F., Jones, A.M., McBride, P.E., Moholdt, T., Stone, J.A., … Williams, M.A. (2013). Aerobic exercise intensity assessment and prescription in cardiac rehabilitation: A joint position statement of the European Association for Cardiovascular Prevention and Rehabilitation, the American Association of Cardiovascular and Pulmonary Rehabilitation. European Journal of Preventive Cardiology, 20(3), 442–467. PubMed ID: 23104970 doi:10.1177/2047487312460484

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Mitchell, J.H. (1985). Cardiovascular control during exercise: Central and reflex neural mechanisms. The American Journal of Cardiology, 55(10), D34–D41. PubMed ID: 3993548 doi:10.1016/0002-9149(85)91053-7

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Razon, S., Basevitch, I., Land, W., Thompson, B., & Tenenbaum, G. (2009). Perception of exertion and attention allocation as a function of visual and auditory conditions. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 10(6), 636–643. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2009.03.007

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rejeski, W.J. (1985). Perceived exertion: An active or passive process? Journal of Sport Psychology, 7(4), 371–378. doi:10.1123/jsp.7.4.371

  • Russell, J.A. (1978). Evidence of convergent validity on the dimensions of affect. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 36(10), 1152–1168. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.36.10.1152

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Schneirla, T.C. (1959). An evolutionary and developmental theory of biphasic processes underlying approach and withdrawal. In M.R. Jones (Ed.), Nebraska symposium on motivation (pp. 1–42). Lincoln, NE: University of Nebraska Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sheppard, K.E., & Parfitt, G. (2008). Patterning of physiological and affective responses during graded exercise test in sedentary men and boys. Journal of Exercise Science and Fitness, 6(2), 121–129.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • St Clair Gibson, A., Swart, J., & Tucker, R. (2018). The interaction of psychological and physiological homeostatic drives and role of general control principles in the regulation of physiological systems, exercise and the fatigue process-the Integrative Governor theory. European Journal of Sport Science, 18(1), 25–36. PubMed ID: 28478704 doi:10.1080/17461391.2017.1321688

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Strange, S., Secher, N.H., Pawelczyk, J.A., Karpakka, J., Christensen, N.J., Mitchell, J.H., & Saltin, B. (1993). Neural control of cardiovascular responses and of ventilation during dynamic exercise in man. The Journal of Physiology, 470(1), 693–704. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.1993.sp019883

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Svebak, S., & Murgatroyd, S. (1985). Metamotivational dominance. A multimethod validation of reversal theory constructs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48(1), 107–116. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.48.1.107

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tammen, V. (1996). Elite middle and long distance runners associative/dissociative coping. Journal of Applied Sport Psychology, 8(1), 1–8. doi:10.1080/10413209608406304

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tenenbaum, G. (2001). A social-cognitive perspective of perceived exertion and exertion tolerance. In R.N. Singe (Ed.), Handbook of sport psychology (pp. 810–822). New York, NY: Wiley.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tenenbaum, G. (2005). The study of perceived and sustained effort: Concepts, research findings, and future directions. In D. Hackfort, J. Duda, & R. Lidor (Eds.), Handbook of research on applied sport psychology (pp. 335–349). Morgantown, WV: Fitness Information Technology.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tenenbaum, G., & Connolly, C.T. (2008). Attention allocation under varied workload and effort perception in rowers. Psychology of Sport and Exercise, 9(5), 704–717. doi:10.1016/j.psychsport.2007.09.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Tenenbaum, G., Kamata, A., & Hayashi, K. (2007). Measurement in sport and exercise psychology: A new outlook on selected issues of reliability and validity. In G. Tenenbaum& R. Eklund (Eds.), Handbook of sport psychology (3rd ed., pp. 757–773). Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Van Orden, G.C., Kloos, H., & Wallot, S. (2011). Living in the pink: Intentionality, wellbeing, and complexity. Philosophy of Complex Systems, 10, 629–672. doi:10.1016/B978-0-444-52076-0.50022-5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Weiser, P.C., Kinsman, R.A., & Stamper, D.A. (1973). Task-specific symptomatology changes resulting from prolonged submaximal bicycle riding. Medicine and Science in Sports, 5(2), 79–85. PubMed ID: 4721010

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Welch, A.S., Hulley, A., & Beauchamp, M. (2010). Affect and self-efficacy responses during moderate-intensity exercise among low-active women: The effect of cognitive appraisal. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 32(2), 154–175. PubMed ID: 20479476 doi:10.1123/jsep.32.2.154

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 266 266 14
Full Text Views 32 32 5
PDF Downloads 20 20 5