Acute Effects of Resistance-Exercise Intensity in Depressed Black/African Americans Living With HIV: A Randomized Pilot Study

in Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology
Restricted access

Purchase article

USD  $24.95

Student 1 year subscription

USD  $84.00

1 year subscription

USD  $111.00

Student 2 year subscription

USD  $159.00

2 year subscription

USD  $208.00

Depressive symptoms and fatigue are prevalent among people living with human immunodeficiency virus. Resistance exercise is known to stimulate a positive affective response. Objective: To examine the acute psychological effects of resistance-exercise intensity among Black/African-American people living with human immunodeficiency virus and experiencing depressive symptoms. Methods: A total of 42 participants were randomized into a moderate- (n = 21) or high-intensity (n = 21) group. Assessments were collected before exercise (PRE), at the midpoint (MID), immediately following (POST) exercise, and 15 (DELAY 15) and 30 (DELAY 30) min after. Results: In the moderate-intensity group, affect improved PRE to POST, PRE to DELAY 15 and DELAY 30, and perceived distress decreased from PRE to all time points. In the high-intensity group, affect declined PRE to MID, and perceived distress decreased PRE to DELAY 15 and DELAY 30. Perceived activation increased PRE to MID, and POST in both groups (ps < .01). Conclusions: The moderate-intensity group compared with the high-intensity group is more effective at improving affect and energy and at reducing distress.

Nosrat, Whitworth, SantaBarbara, and Ciccolo are with the Dept. of Biobehavioral Sciences, Teachers College Columbia University, New York, NY. Whitworth is with the Dept. of Psychiatry, Boston University School of Medicine, Boston, MA. Dunsiger is with the Dept. of Behavioral and Social Sciences, Brown University, Providence, RI, and the Centers for Behavioral and Preventive Medicine, The Miriam Hospital, Providence, RI.

Nosrat (Sn2504@tc.columbia.edu) is corresponding author.
  • Akena, D., Joska, J., Obuku, E.A., & Stein, D.J. (2013). Sensitivity and specificity of clinician administered screening instruments in detecting depression among HIV-positive individuals in Uganda. AIDS Care, 25(10), 1245–1252. PubMed ID: 23398282 doi:10.1080/09540121.2013.764385

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ammassari, A., Antinori, A., Aloisi, M.S., Trotta, M.P., Murri, R., Bartoli, L., . . . Starace, F. (2004). Depressive symptoms, neurocognitive impairment, and adherence to highly active antiretroviral therapy among HIV-infected persons. Psychosomatics, 45(5), 394–402. PubMed ID: 15345784 doi:10.1176/appi.psy.45.5.394

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Arent, S.M., Landers, D.M., Matt, K.S., & Etnier, J.L. (2005). Resolving dose‐response and mechanistic issues in the resistance training and affect relationship: The role of intensity. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 36(5), S95.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Barksdale, C.L., & Molock, S.D. (2009). Perceived norms and mental health help seeking among African American college students. Journal of Behavioral Health Services and Research, 36(3), 285–299. PubMed ID: 18668368 doi:10.1007/s11414-008-9138-y

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bjorgvinsson, T., Kertz, S.J., Bigda-Peyton, J.S., McCoy, K.L., & Aderka, I.M. (2013). Psychometric properties of the CES-D-10 in a psychiatric sample. Assessment, 20(4), 429–436. PubMed ID: 23513010 doi:10.1177/1073191113481998

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Bonevski, B., Randell, M., Paul, C., Chapman, K., Twyman, L., Bryant, J., . . . Hughes, C. (2014). Reaching the hard-to-reach: A systematic review of strategies for improving health and medical research with socially disadvantaged groups. BMC Medical Research Methodology, 14, 42. PubMed ID: 24669751 doi:10.1186/1471-2288-14-42

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Borenstein, M., Hedges, L.V., Higgins, J.P., & Rothstein, H.R. (2009). Introduction to meta-analysis. Chichester, UK: John Wiley & Sons.

  • Cavarretta, D.J., Hall, E.E., & Bixby, W.R. (2018). The acute effects of resistance exercise on affect, anxiety, and mood–practical implications for designing resistance training programs. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 12(1), 295–324. doi:10.1080/1750984X.2018.1474941

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2019). HIV in the United States: At a glance. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/hiv/statistics/overview/ataglance.html

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Cohen, S., Kamarck, T., & Mermelstein, R. (1983). A global measure of perceived stress. Journal of Health and Social Behavior, 24(4), 385–396. PubMed ID: 6668417 doi:10.2307/2136404

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Das, A.K., Olfson, M., McCurtis, H.L., & Weissman, M.M. (2006). Depression in African Americans: Breaking barriers to detection and treatment: Community-based studies tend to ignore high-risk groups of African Americans. Journal of Family Practice, 55(1), 30–40. PubMed ID: 16388764

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Do, A.N., Rosenberg, E.S., Sullivan, P.S., Beer, L., Strine, T.W., Schulden, J.D., . . . Skarbinski, J. (2014). Excess burden of depression among HIV-infected persons receiving medical care in the United States: Data from the medical monitoring project and the behavioral risk factor surveillance system. PloS ONE, 9(3), e92842. PubMed ID: 24663122 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092842

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ekkekakis, P. (2009). The dual-mode theory of affective responses to exercise in metatheoretical context: I. Initial impetus, basic postulates, and philosophical framework. International Review of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 2(1), 73–94. doi:10.1080/17509840802705920

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Ekkekakis, P., Parfitt, G., & Petruzzello, S.J. (2011). The pleasure and displeasure people feel when they exercise at different intensities: Decennial update and progress towards a tripartite rationale for exercise intensity prescription. Sports Medicine, 41(8), 641–671. PubMed ID: 21780850 doi:10.2165/11590680-000000000-00000

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Faul, F., Erdfelder, E., Lang, A.G., & Buchner, A. (2007). G*Power 3: A flexible statistical power analysis program for the social, behavioral, and biomedical sciences. Behavior Research Methods, 39(2), 175–191. PubMed ID: 17695343 doi:10.3758/BF03193146

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Greene, D.R., & Petruzzello, S.J. (2015). More isn’t necessarily better: Examining the intensity-affect-enjoyment relationship in the context of resistance exercise. Sport Exercise and Performance Psychology, 4(2), 75–87. doi:10.1037/spy0000030

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Haff, G., Triplett, N.T., & National Strength and Conditioning Association (U.S.). (2016). Essentials of strength training and conditioning (4th ed.). Champaign, IL: Human Kinetics.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Hardy, C.J., & Rejeski, W.J. (1989). Not what, but how one feels: The measurement of affect during exercise. Journal of Sport & Exercise Psychology, 11(3), 304–317. doi:10.1123/jsep.11.3.304

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Henderson, M., Safa, F., Easterbrook, P., & Hotopf, M. (2005). Fatigue among HIV-infected patients in the era of highly active antiretroviral therapy. HIV Medicine, 6(5), 347–352. PubMed ID: 16156883 doi:10.1111/j.1468-1293.2005.00319.x

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Holden, K.B., & Xanthos, C. (2009). Disadvantages in mental health care among African Americans. Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, 20(2), 17–23. doi:10.1353/hpu.0.0155

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Jong, E., Oudhoff, L.A., Epskamp, C., Wagener, M.N., van Duijn, M., Fischer, S., & van Gorp, E.C. (2010). Predictors and treatment strategies of HIV-related fatigue in the combined antiretroviral therapy era. AIDS, 24(10), 1387–1405. PubMed ID: 20523204 doi:10.1097/QAD.0b013e328339d004

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Keppel, G., & Wickens, T. (2004). Design and analysis: A researcher’s handbook. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall.

  • Noble, B.J., Borg, G.A., Jacobs, I., Ceci, R., & Kaiser, P. (1983). A category-ratio perceived exertion scale: Relationship to blood and muscle lactates and heart rate. Medicine and Science in Sports and Exercise, 15(6), 523–528. PubMed ID: 6656563 doi:10.1249/00005768-198315060-00015

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nosrat, S., Whitworth, J.W., & Ciccolo, J.T. (2017). Exercise and mental health of people living with HIV: A systematic review. Chronic Illness, 13(4), 299–319. doi:10.1177/1742395317694224

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Nosrat, S., Whitworth, J.W., Dunsiger, S.I., SantaBarbara, N.J., & Ciccolo, J.T. (2017). Acute effects of resistance exercise in a depressed HIV sample: The exercise for people who are immunocompromised (EPIC) study. Mental Health and Physical Activity, 12, 2–9. doi:10.1016/j.mhpa.2016.12.002

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • O’Brien, K.K., Tynan, A.M., Nixon, S.A., & Glazier, R.H. (2016). Effectiveness of aerobic exercise for adults living with HIV: Systematic review and meta-analysis using the Cochrane Collaboration protocol. BMC Infectious Diseases, 16(1), 182. doi:10.1186/s12879-016-1478-2

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Phillips, K.D., Sowell, R.L., Rojas, M., Tavakoli, A., Fulk, L.J., & Hand, G.A. (2004). Physiological and psychological correlates of fatigue in HIV disease. Biological Research for Nursing, 6(1), 59–74. PubMed ID: 15186708 doi:10.1177/1099800404264846

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Rhodes, R.E., & Kates, A. (2015). Can the affective response to exercise predict future motives and physical activity behavior? A systematic review of published evidence. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 49(5), 715–731. PubMed ID: 25921307 doi:10.1007/s12160-015-9704-5

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Shaghaghi, A., Bhopal, R.S., & Sheikh, A. (2011). Approaches to recruiting ‘hard-to-reach’ populations into research: A review of the literature. Health Promotion Perspectives, 1(2), 86–94. PubMed ID: 24688904 doi:10.5681/hpp.2011.009

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sin, N.L., & DiMatteo, M.R. (2014). Depression treatment enhances adherence to antiretroviral therapy: A meta-analysis. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 47(3), 259–269. PubMed ID: 24234601 doi:10.1007/s12160-013-9559-6

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Spielberger, C.D., Gorsuch, R.L., & Lushene, R.E. (1970). Manual for the State-Trait Anxiety Inventory. Palo Alto, CA: Consulting Psychologists Press.

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Svebak, S., & Murgatroyd, S. (1985). Metamotivational dominance: A multimethod validation of reversal theory constructs. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48(1), 107–116. doi:10.1037/0022-3514.48.1.107

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Sweet, T.W., Foster, C., McGuigan, M.R., & Brice, G. (2004). Quantitation of resistance training using the session rating of perceived exertion method. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, 18(4), 796–802. PubMed ID: 15574104 doi:10.1519/14153.1

    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
  • Wolpe, J. (1990). Pergamon general psychology series, 1. The practice of behavior therapy (4th ed.). Elmsford, NY: Pergamon Press.

  • Zhang, W., O’Brien, N., Forrest, J.I., Salters, K.A., Patterson, T.L., Montaner, J.S., . . . Lima, V.D. (2012). Validating a shortened depression scale (10 item CES-D) among HIV-positive people in British Columbia, Canada. PloS One, 7(7), e40793. PubMed ID: 22829885 doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0040793

    • Crossref
    • Search Google Scholar
    • Export Citation
All Time Past Year Past 30 Days
Abstract Views 309 309 170
Full Text Views 53 53 16
PDF Downloads 25 25 6